IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Clearly phs caes h 2 and sng are the only storage

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Clearly PHS, CAES, H 2 and SNG are the only storage technologies available for high power ranges and energy capacities, although energy density is rather low for PHS and CAES. Large power ranges are feasible as these EES systems use the turbines and compressors familiar from other power generation plants. However, only PHS is mature and available. Restrictions in locations (topography) and land consumption are a more severe limit for this technology than the characteristic of low energy density (although the two may be linked in some cases). Figure 2-11 shows a lack of immediately deployable storage systems in the range from 10 MW to some hundreds of MW. Diabatic CAES is well-developed but adiabatic CAES is yet to be demonstrated. Single components of H 2 and SNG storage systems are available and in some cases have been used in industrial applications for decades. However, such storage systems become viable and economically reasonable only if the grids have to carry and distribute large amounts of volatile electricity from REs. The first demonstration and pilot plants are currently under construction (e.g. in Europe). Figure 2-11 – Maturity and state of the art of storage systems for electrical energy (Fraunhofer ISE)
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40 S E C T I O N 2 Types and features of energy storage systems From the technical comparison it can be concluded that a single universal storage technology superior to all other storage systems does not exist. Today and in the future different types of EES will be necessary to suit all the applications described in section 1. Bearing in mind the findings from Figures 2-9 and 2-10, Figure 2-11 suggests the following conclusions. 1) EES systems for short and medium discharge times cover wide ranges of rated power and energy density. Several mature EES technologies, in particular FES, DLC and battery systems, can be used in these ranges. 2) PHS is the only currently feasible large- capacity EES for medium discharge times; further development in CAES is expected. Suitable locations for large PHS and CAES systems are topographically limited. An increase in the capacity of other EES systems, and control and integration of dispersed EES systems (see section 3.3), will be required for medium-duration use. 3) For long discharge times, days to months, and huge capacities (GWh - TWh), no EES technologies have so far been put into practical operation. New EES technologies such as H 2 and SNG have to be developed.
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Markets for EES SECTION 3
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42 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES In this section an overview of the markets for EES is given by describing existing EES application cases. Applications for conventional electric utilities and consumers are presented as well as near-future use cases, concentrating on storage applications in combination with renewable energy generation.
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