earthquakes chpt 8 study guide

Some of earths most beautiful mountains are including

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23. Some of Earth's most beautiful mountains are __________, including Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Mt. Shasta in California, Mt. Rainier in Washington, and Mt. Fuji in Japan. A. stratovolcanoes B. cinder cones C. shield volcanoes D. calderas 24. _________ eruptions are common first phases in the eruptions of volcanoes as they "clear their throats" before emitting larger eruptions. 25. __________ eruptions are the most violent types of explosive eruptions. 26. What is the cause of volcanism at Italy's Vesuvius, Stromboli, Vulcano, and Etna?
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27. The number of "hot spots" worldwide is __________________. A. no more than 10 B. about 20 C. about 50 D. more than 100 E. only 4 28. A mantle hot spot has generated a long-lived plume beneath Yellowstone National Park, and the North American continent is drifting ___________ above it about 2 to 4 cm/yr. 29. A caldera collapse occurs __________________. 30. The formation of a giant continental caldera includes all but which of the following? 31. Crater Lake, Oregon, fills the caldera of ____________ which collapsed about 7600 years ago. A. Mt. Mazama B. Mt. Shasta C. Mt. St. Helens D. Mt. Baker E. Mt. Rainier 32. This volcano erupted in 1883 in the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java, exploding with a loudness heard 3000 miles away, then collapsing into its magma chamber, making a caldera and setting off tsunami that killed at least 36,000 people.
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33. ____________ in the Aegean Sea underwent an explosive series of eruptions around 1628 B.C.E. that buried the Bronze Age city of Akrotiri on Thera to depths of 70 meters. 34. Water circulating at thousands of feet below the surface can be heated to temperatures far above 100 ° C (212 ° F) without boiling because the pressure of the overlying groundwater body is so great. True False 35. Most magma is generated by decreasing the pressure on hot rock. True False 36. Magma at depth does not contain gas bubbles because the high pressure at depth keeps gas dissolved in solution.
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