O fever is a physiological response o involves

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o Fever is a physiological response o Involves changing the body temp set point (hypothalamus) o Elevated set point causes heat retaining/producing physiological responses such as vasoconstriction and shivering o Shivering helps make fever happen o Individuals with fever feel cold because set point has changed - Quantitative Measurements o A knowledge of normal ranges of body conditions aids in diagnosing diseases and in assessing the effects of drugs and other treatments in experiments - Positive Feedback o Moves conditions further away from a set pint. The input and the output in a positive feedback loop are the same o EX: uterine contractions during child birth Release of oxytocin causes the uterus to contract. This pushes the baby’s head against the cervix, activating stretch receptors that signal to the hypothalamus. This results in more oxytocin release, which results in stronger contractions etc. etc. o Ex: mosquito bite on arm Scratch the bite and histamine is released; the bite itches more Chapter 2: Cell Biology - An understanding of chemistry is important because the interaction between atoms is one of the lowest levels of biological organizations - Atoms o The basic unit of all forms of matter is the atom o Atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the physical and chemical properties of the element o Atoms are made up of subatomic particles The 3 most stable subatomic particles are neutrons, protons, and electrons - Electron Orbitals o Electron orbitals are the three-dimensional space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron will be found o Opposite charges attract o In nucleus of an atom, there are protons (+) and neutrons (no charge); every signal nucleus has a positive charge. Not all nuclei are the same size. o Around the nucleus is electrons (-); they are there because they are attracted the positively charged nucleus. They are constantly shifting and rearranging. o EX: hydrogen and helium Hydrogen only has one protons and helium has twice as many - The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell
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4 o Most electrons in the outer shell is 8 and for some it is 2 - An atom with an incomplete (partially full) electron shell is reactive whereas an atom with a full electron shell is inert, or not chemically active o Inert means that they will not form chemical bonds o All the number of atoms in the same column have the same number of electrons. Most of the atoms are trying to get 8 - The Hindenburg 1937 o The blimp was filled with hydrogen o It floated very high, very quickly o The problem with hydrogen is that it doesn’t have a full outer shell and so it is very reactive. It will react with oxygen, which is called combustion. o This is what happened with the blimp.
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