Cultural preferences economic status fair import

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cultural preferences, economic status, fair import-export practices, envi- ronmental concerns, ef fi cient use of land and water resources, genetic modi fi cation of foods, and humane treatment of animals. 1-5 II. A PERSPECTIVE ON U.S. FOOD GUIDES An in-depth discussion of the development of U.S. food guides has been recorded by others. 3-6 This discussion is limited to characterizing the balance of animal- and plant-based proteins during the 20th century. In the early 1900s, human life span was around 50 years of age and infectious disease was the leading cause of death. Also, malnutrition was widely documented among many young men registering for military service as well as those in lower socioeconomic groups. For most of the 1900s, food guides and recommendations emphasized planning meals around meat and dairy foods. Some of the biases in modern dietary guidance may have been derived from the wording of food groups, the order of words used to describe food groups, and the graphic illustration of food groups seen in these early publications. For instance, the words meat and milk have consistently been used to de fi ne major sources as well as speci fi c sources of protein rich foods. These words focus the user on a narrow range of protein options, and, in industrialized nations, have ultimately de fi ned the protein-rich food groups. A second bias introduced by food guides has been the ordering of words used to describe animal and plant sources of protein. Animal proteins, without exception, are always listed fi rst, while plant proteins, when speci fi cally mentioned as part of the food group, have always been listed last, after meat, poultry, fi sh, and eggs. In addition to the qualitative bias of words used to describe protein-rich foods, food guides have quantitatively favored selection of animal protein over vegetable protein. Regarding the recommendation for milk consump- tion, the fi rst food guide recommended one serving of milk per day. This amount has increased to the present recommendation of two to three servings of milk, yogurt, and cheese per day. The quantitative recommen- dation for meat consumption has also gradually increased over the past century. Plant-protein sources were only speci fi cally mentioned in three of the six food guides published in the last century. The fi rst and only time plant proteins were identi fi ed as a separate group was in the second
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Developing A Vegetarian Food Guide 413 food guide, published in 1933. 6 This guide consisted of twelve food groups, four of which targeted protein-rich foods: milk; lean meat, poultry, fi sh; dry mature beans, peas, and nuts; and eggs. Only one serving per week of the plant-based protein group was recommended. An example of visual bias among the food guides is the Basic Four food groups graphic, used from 1956 to 1979. The Basic Four graphic emphasized animal-based food groups by the placement of four equal boxes depicting the milk and meat groups on top of the bread cereal and vegetable fruit groups. It becomes
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