Microorganisms viruses viroids and prions pathogens

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microorganisms, viruses, viroids, and prions Pathogens can alter community structure quickly and extensively Pathogens and Community Structure Pathogens can have dramatic effects on communities For example, coral reef communities are being decimated by white-band disease Human activities are transporting pathogens around the world at unprecedented rates Community ecology is needed to help study and combat them Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases Zoonotic pathogens have been transferred from other animals to humans The transfer of pathogens can be direct or through an intermediate species called a vector Many of today’s emerging human diseases are zoonotic Avian flu is a highly contagious virus of birds Ecologists are studying the potential spread of the virus from Asia to North America through migrating birds
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You should now be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following sets of terms: competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis; fundamental and realized niche; cryptic and aposematic coloration; Batesian mimicry and Müllerian mimicry; parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism; endoparasites and ectoparasites; species richness and relative abundance; food chain and food web; primary and secondary succession 2. Define an ecological niche and explain the competitive exclusion principle in terms of the niche concept 3. Explain how dominant and keystone species exert strong control on community structure 4. Distinguish between bottom-up and top-down community organization 5. Describe and explain the intermediate disturbance hypothesis 6. Explain why species richness declines along an equatorial-polar gradient 7. Define zoonotic pathogens and explain, with an example, how they may be controlled Fig. 54-UN2
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