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been answered. The consensus among scholars is that the bomb was not needed to avoid aninvasion of Japan. . . . It is clear that alternatives to the bomb existed and that Truman and hisadvisers knew it.” (Alperovitz, Messer & Bernstein, 1991, p. 205 para. 3). Some think that theAllies could have found other ways to force a surrender from Japan instead of bombing them.One example was to threaten Japan with an invasion of the Russian military on their alreadyweakened state before bombing them. The civilian and military casualties in World War II were high at around 60 million.70,000-80,000 civilians died in Hiroshima resulting from the effects of the atomic bomb blastfrom August 6, 1945 while thousands more were injured. Nagasaki suffered half as manycasualties as Hiroshima. “On August 15, 1945, Japan unconditionally surrendered to the UnitedStates, although it still possessed a two-million-man army in the home islands which wasprepared and willing to meet any American invasion, as well as other forces overseas.” (Pape,1993, p.154, para.1). The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II havebecome a symbolism to the surrender of Japan to the Allies. President Truman’s decision to useatomic bombs as a last resort to force Japan’s surrender was also the start to the unlikely allianceand international relationship between the United States and Japan.
ReferencesAlperovitz, G., Messer, R. L., & Bernstein, B. J. (1991). Marshall, Truman, and the decision to drop the bomb. International Security, 16(3), 204– 221. Retrieved from Borchard, E. (1946). The atomic bomb. The American Society of International Law, 40(1), 161–165. Retrieved from