7 many animals breed in the spring or early summer

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7. Many animals breed in the spring or early summer. What is the proximate cause of this behavior? What is most likely the ultimate cause of this behavior? 8. Give an example of an FAP in a human infant and the sign stimulus that elicits it. 9. Use imprinting and sensitive period to explain why doctors encourage parents to hold their newborns as much as possible. 10. Indicate the type of learning illustrated by the following examples and explain your choice: a. Ewes will adopt and nurse a lamb shortly after they five birth to their own lamb but will butt and reject a lamb introduced a day or two later. b. A dog, whose early “accidents” were cleaned up with paper towels accompanied with harsh discipline, hides under the bed any time a paper towel is used in the house. c. Ducklings eventually ignore a cardboard silhouette of a hawk that is repeatedly flown over them. d. Kittens stalk and pounce on each other, biting and kicking as they roll around together. e. In Pavlov’s experiments, the ringing of a bell caused a dog to salivate. 11. How would Peter Berthold possibly explain the dramatic increase in the population of Canadian geese in New Jersey? 12. Explain how the optimal foraging theory explains the selective pressures related to foraging. 13. Explain how the following concepts are linked. a. the needs of the young and the promiscuity of the parents
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AP Biology 2012-2013 3 b. sexual selection (distinguish between female choice & male competition) and sexual dimorphism c. offspring mortality and parental investment in care of offspring d. number of offspring and parental investment in care of offspring e. altruism and kin selection (include Hamil ton’s rule in your explanation) 14. In a mark-recapture study an ecologist traps, marks, and releases 15 chipmunks. A week later she resets her traps and catches 17 chipmunks, 3 of whom are marked. What would her estimate be of the chipmunk population size?
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