For James the only way to achieve an understanding of truth deeper than that

For james the only way to achieve an understanding of

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meaning is to the idea of truth. For James, the only way to achieve an understanding of truth deeper than that given by this equivalence is to apply the pragmatic method to the concept of truth. According to Schultz & Schultz (2011), the popular expression of the pragmatic viewpoint is “anything is true if it works.” The Theory of Emotions William James theory of emotions contradicted the thinking of psychologists of his time since according to them the subjective mental experience of emotion will appear before our body acts upon it. The common example would be when we encounter a wild animal, we
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FUNCTIONALISM BY WILLIAM JAMES 8 ___________________________________________________________________________ feel the emotion such as fear first and then our body starts to act by running away. However, for James, the position is reversed. He stated that the arousal of the physical response will appear before the emotions especially for stronger emotions such as love, grief, rage and fear. To support this idea, James mentioned the introspective observation that no emotion will appear if there is no bodily changes happening like increasing heart rate, shallow breathing and muscle tension. His view on emotions sparks many controversies and research on it and it was then discovered that a Danish physiologist named Carl Lange wrote a similar theory in 1885 which is why this theory is now called the James-Lange theory of emotions (Schultz & Schultz, 2011). The Three Parts Self William James suggested that there are 3 components of a person’s sense of self which are the material, the social and the spiritual. The material self are everything that we ‘own’ such as our body, home, family, or even style of dress. According to James, we are deeply affected by these things because of our investment of self within those things. The more we invest ourselves in those things, the more we are attached and unavoided by it (Schultz & Schultz, 2011). The social self refers to the recognition we get from other people. We may have an innate tendency to be positively noticed by others. If we are being unnoticed or they make us feel like we are non-existing, a sense of rage and hopelessness would arise inside us which is not good. A man has as many social selves as there are many people who recognizes him. It means that we have many social selves, we present different sides of ourselves to different people. For example, we behave differently with our family members, lecturers, and friends. We don’t treat our parents like our friends, and we do not treat our friends as our lecturers (Schultz & Schultz, 2011).
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FUNCTIONALISM BY WILLIAM JAMES 9 ___________________________________________________________________________ The third component, the spiritual self refers to our inner being. This part is the most suffering and close part of self, where we truly seem to be because we experienced the satisfaction when one thinks of one’s “ability to argue and discriminate, of our [one’s] moral sensibility, and conscience, of our indomitable will” (James 1890, 164) is more pure than other sentiments of satisfaction. Furthermore, James describes several body processes in
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