[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

The samples were lyophilized and grinded in a liquid

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The samples were lyophilized and grinded in a liquid nitrogen cooled freezer mill before being pressed to pellets. The highest amounts of Mn, Cu, and Hg were always found in the liver, whereas Zn and Se concentrations were higher in skin. The obtained limits of detection ranged from 3.1 µ g g 1 (Fe) to 0.5 µ g g 1 (As). The uptake of arsenic in the organs and tissue of mice was reported by Sanchez et al. [728]. An external standard for calibration and an internal stan- dard (addition) were used to obtain concentrations, which showed uncertain- ties of 2% (urine), 7% (tissue) and 20% (blood). They reported concentrations of arsenic in the blood of 2.9 and in urine of 42 µ g g 1 . Boman et al. [729] measured the elemental concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, and Pb in a number of Vietnamese animals in order to establish a background set of trace element concentration data with an XRF set-up in three-axial geometry. The detection limits ranged from 0.9 (Br, Se) to 5 (Mn) and 20 (Ca) µ g g 1 . The effect of lithium augmentation on the trace elemen- tal profile in diabetic rats was examined by Dhawan et al. [730]. The lithium treatment showed a significant depression in K and Rb levels and an elevation in the Br level. In other applications, the calcium and phosphor contents in osteoporosis model rats [731], and the distribution of trace elements of emboli in the cardiovascular system [732] were examined. To clear up the beneficial effects of cave therapy, Alfoldy et al. [733] characterized aerosol particles and their deposition in the respiratory tract. They suggested using the relevant chemical information for lung deposition modelling. The influence of zinc on the toxic effects of organophosphorous insecticides (chlorpyrifos) in rats was examined by Goel et al. [734]. It as shown that the co-administration of zinc restored serum and liver marker enzymes to normal limits and could be used as a mediator of toxic effects. Liu et al. [735] studied the distribution patterns of trace elements in an experimental model of iodine
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732 G. Weseloh et al. deficiency using XRF and other techniques. They found that I and I plus Se supplementation improved thyroid hormone metabolism, but also affected the contents of Cu, Mn, Rb, and Zn in erythrocytes and of Br in the brain. The removal of iodine contrast media (iopromide or iomeprol) used in radiographic procedures on renal patients was monitored by Schindler et al. [736]. They concluded that high-flux haemodialysis and online haemodiafiltration remove the examined contrast media most effectively. The analysis of hair can show relations to diseases or poisons, environ- mental exposure and nutrition status. Dede et al. [737] determined trace element levels in human scalp hair and correlated them to environmental exposure effects. The samples were dried, ashed and pelleted. For excitation, a 109 Cd radioisotope source was used and detection limits for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb < 1 µ g g 1 (dry hair) and 2–5 µ g g 1 (ashed hair) were obtained. In a study
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