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1The invention of the cotton gin transformed cotton into America’s mostvaluable cash crop.2 Cotton gin led directly to the dramatic nineteenth-century expansion ofslavery in the South.22.King Cotton1 The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney, which made itpossible and profitable to harvest shot-staple cotton.
2 Rich new farm land in the Deep South was opened to the cultivation ofcotton.3 The rise of textile manufacturing in England created enormous demandfor cotton.4 Cotton quickly became America’s most valuable cash crop. In 1840,cotton production accounted for more than half of the value of allAmerican exports.23.Erie CanalMost important and profitable of the canals of the 1820s and 1830s;stretched from Buffalo to Albany, New York, connecting the Great Lakesto the East Coast. Significant consequences:1 Erie Canal strengthened commercial and political ties between theeastern manufacturing centers and western agricultural regions.2 It helped transform New York City into America’s greatest commercialcenter.3 Canals helped open the west to settlement and trade.4 Completed in 1825, the Erie Canal sparked a period of canal buildingthat lasted until 1850.24.Marbury v. Madison
1 As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801-1835 John Marshallwas a proponent of a strong central government and an opponent ofstate’s rights. He issued a number of landmark decisions that strengthenedthe power of the federal government, upheld the supremacy of federal lawover state legislatures, and promoted business enterprise.2 Marshall established the principle of Judicial Review in the famouscase of Marybury v. Madison. The ruling gave the Supreme Court theauthority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional for the first time.25.Missouri CompromiseDeal proposed by Kentucky senator Henry Clay in 1820 to resolve theslave/free imbalance in Congress.1 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 settled the first major nineteenth-century conflict over slavery.2 Maine entered the Union as a free state.3 Missouri entered the Union as a slave state, thus maintain the balancebetween free and slave states in the Senate.4 The Compromise closed the remaining territory of the LouisianaPurchase above the 36。30’ line to slavery.5 The Missouri Compromise temporarily defused the political crisis overslavery. However, the Missouri Compromise debate foreshadowed thedivisive intersectional debates over the expansion of slavery that
resurfaced during the 1840s and 1850s. 26.Monroe Doctrine1 Monroe presented the American position on Latin America in a speechto Congress delivered in 1823. The Monroe Doctrine was a unilateraldeclaration of principles that asserted American independence fromEurope in foreign policy.2 The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the political system in the WesternHemisphere is different and separate from that of Europe.