In 1934 Congress established the Secu-rities and Exchange Commission. The SEC would serve as a government watchdog over the nation's stock markets. One of the most far-reaching and ambitious programs of the New Deal was the· Tennes-see Valley Authority, or TVA. Created in May 1933, this massive program was charged with developing the resources of the entire Tennes-see River Valley, a vast region in the Southeast United States. The TVA built dams and other projects along the Tennessee River and its tributaries. These dams controlled floods, aided naviga-tion and shipping along the river, and provided hydroelectric power to be used by industries. (See the History and Geography feature on the TVA at the end of this section.) Beyond the Hundred Days President Roosevelt had campaigned promising action and "bold, persistent experimentation." He had delivered. Many Americans applauded his efforts. Journalist and former Roosevelt critic Walter Lippmann wrote, "In the hundred days from March to June we became again an orga-nized nation confident of our power." Amid the successes, there was also much to criticize. Even Roosevelt admitted in a fireside chat, "I do not deny that we make mistakes." Comparing himself to a baseball player, he said, "I have no expectation of making a hit every time we come to bat." Yet FDR and the Congress kept trying, passing significant legislation in the period after the Hundred Days. In November 1933, for example, the Civil Works Administration (CWA) was created. This agency provided win-ter employment to 4 million workers. CWA crews built miles of highways and sewer lines, hundreds of airports, and more. In June 1934 Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act. It reversed previous poli-cies by recognizing the tribe as the key unit of social organization for Native Americans. It limited the sale of Indian lands and provided assistance to native groups in developing their resources, economy, and culture. It also granted some limited rights of self-rule. Many Native Americans hailed the new direction. Others viewed it more skeptically, as just another instance of outsiders telling them what to do. Identifying Supporting Details What were the three main categories of the programs and actions of Roosevelt's New Deal? ACADEMIC VOCABULARY mandate require THE NEW DEAL 351 '
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY significant meaningful Trouble for the New Deal The New Deal marked a significant shift in the relationship between government and the American people. Never before had government assumed such a central role in the business and personal lives of its citizens. Not surpris-ingly, this shift triggered strong reactions. Some reformers and radicals believed the New Deal had not gone far enough in reforming the economy. They wanted a complete overhaul of capitalism. The New Deal, they complained, merely propped up the old banking system and gave new freedoms to business. These, critics charged, were the same people and powers that had led the nation into the Great Depres-sion in the first place.