Electron transport mitochondrial matrix ii nadh turns

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Electron Transport (Mitochondrial Matrix) ii. NADH turns into NAD + in the first protein complex iii. FADH 2 turns into FAD in second protein complex iv. Electrons move through membrane while H + ions are pumped into the intermembrane space v. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor = water produced vi. ATP synthase pumps H+ through rotary mechanism to perform ADP + Pi=ATP 37) Outline the three phases of glycolysis and KNOW net products a. Energy Investment i. Steps 1-3 ii. 2 ATP hydrolyzed to create fructose-1, 6 biphosphate b. Cleavage
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i. Steps 4-5 ii. 6 carbon molecules broken down into 3 carbon molecules of glyceradehyde-3- phosphate c. Energy Liberation i. Steps 6-10 ii. 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules – produces 2 NADH and 4 ATP molecules (net yield = 2 ATP) 38) Describe the series of enzymatic reactions that constitute glycolysis a. Don’t need to know the specific enzymes, but there are enzymes that break down glucose in the series of energy investment, cleavage, and energy liberation 39) Describe how pyruvate is broken down and acetyl CoA is made Through pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria a. i. Pyruvate dehydrogenase breaks it down ii. Molecule of CO 2 is removed from each pyruvate iii. Remaining acetyl group attached to CoA to make Acetyl CoA 1. Yield: 1 NADH for each pyruvate iv. Thus: 1. 2 Pyruvate + 2NAD + = 2 CO 2 + 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 NADH 40) Explain the concept of a metabolic cycle a. Any processes that breaking b. Metabolism: the sum of all metabolic reactions i. Catabolic: breaking a polymer into monomers ii. Anabolic: synthesizing monomers into polymers 41) Describe how an acetyl group enters the citric acid cycle a. CoA is removed from the Acetyl CoA and a six carbon molecule is formed from Acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate i. 2 Acetyl CoA = 4CO 2 + 1 ATP + 3NADH + Citric Acid + 1 FADH 2 42) List the net products of the cycle a. 6CO 2 +6H 2 O + 30-34 ATP 43) Describe how the electron transport chain produces an H+ electrochemical gradient a. Through a series of redox reactions, NADH and FADH release electrons that migrate throughout the inner mitochondrial membrane. An H+ electrochemical gradient is established and H+ builds up (creates potential energy) in the intermembrane space 44) Explain how ATP synthase utilizes the H+ gradient to synthesize ATP a. Rotation of ATP synthase is triggered by a passage of H+ through a channel, every 3 hydrogens turning through the mechanism makes ATP 45) Explain how carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism are interconnected
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a. Carbs are broken down first, then fats, then protein b. Refer to diagram that Vraj wrote on board 46) Describe how certain microorganisms make ATP using a final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain that is not oxygen a. E. Coli uses Nitrate in the ETC and makes NO 2 - 47) Explain how muscle and yeast cells use fermentation to synthesize ATP under anaerobic conditions a. No oxygen = anaerobic i. Anaerobic cellular respiration only occurs with glycolysis (net 2 ATP) a. Exception is E. Coli using nitrate in the ETC 2. Fermentation a.
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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