Treatment strength time interaction o Time for noticeable effect o Teaching

Treatment strength time interaction o time for

This preview shows page 41 - 47 out of 149 pages.

Treatment strength time interaction o Time for noticeable effect o Teaching methodology ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 40
Image of page 41
Research Methodology (ENG518) VU Lesson-16 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES Topic-073: Data Collection Procedures Who and what is used to collect data? Once research designs are decided, we need to select the data collection procedure. There are many ways for data collection The value of data collection procedure is how well it provides answers to the research questions Commonly used data collection procedure in applied linguistics: o Observational and instrumental Observational DGP o Participant observation o Non-participant observation o Sheets o Judges - raters Instrumental DGP o Questionnaires o Closed-open o Tests Topic-074: DCP: Observational Procedures Data gathering procedures based on observation Many possibilities Self (intro-retro) Others participant (full-non- partial) Interviewers Judges-raters ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 41
Image of page 42
Research Methodology (ENG518) VU Topic-075: DCP: Observational Procedures-Examples Data gathering procedures based on observation Through visual observation Human observation for data gathering Self as observer - using participants as observers of their own behavior Protocol analysis (their own internal cognitive states introspection/retrospection Outside observers -others are observing o Full participants o Partial participants o Non-participants o Ethnographic studies conversational analysis The interviewer o Observation under highly structured conditions o Paper-and-pencil data recording o Structured-semi-un- Topic-076: DCP: Instrumental Procedures Data gathering procedures based on instrumentation Many possibilities ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 42
Image of page 43
Research Methodology (ENG518) VU Questionnaires Closed - form Open - form Tests Discrete items Constructed response Topic-077: DCP: Instrumental Procedures -Examples Data gathering procedures based on instrumentation Range of devices questionnaire s- tests Maximum participants Very economical ways Surveys open and closed Standardized tests TOEFL (ETS) IELTS (UoC) Questionnaires o Yes-No Qs o Agree-disagree Qs ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 43
Image of page 44
Research Methodology (ENG518) VU o Likert scale Examples: o First Certificate in English (FCE) o Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT) o McArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) o Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 44
Image of page 45
Research Methodology (ENG518) VU Lesson no. 17 QUALITIES OF GOOD DATA-GATHERING PROCEDURES When many people think of research, they imagine numbers and statistics. However, the numbers that are gathered are based on various data gathering techniques as outlined in Section 1 of this chapter. The quality of these procedures is determined by the caliber of the data-gathering strategy. To sharpen our ability to discern between weak and strong research, we must give
Image of page 46
Image of page 47

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 149 pages?

  • Winter '20
  • Virtual University of Pakistan

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes