Within these two broad categories there are two types

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Within these two broad categories, there are two types of sampling designsthat are specially designed for observation: event sampling and timesampling.2Inevent sampling, the researcher records that a specificbehavior or act occurs; the duration of the observation is determined bywhen the act begins and ends. In some instances, the researcher may alsocapture its antecedents—events and conditions immediately before thebehavior of interest—and the consequences—what happens immediatelyafter the event. For example, assume a machine malfunctions or stops; theevent of interest is the stoppage itself. When did it occur, what was themachine producing, what or who stopped the machine (an internal device, aperson operating the machine, etc.), who was operating the machine at thetime it stopped, etc. While it is unlikely we could hire an observer to waitand watch for machines to malfunction, we can use records of such events.Either event or time sampling can be used when observing humanbehavior.Intime sampling, the choice of cases is based on some time interval.There are three types of time sampling: a time-point sample, continuousreal-time samples, or a time-interval sample. Fortime-point sampling,recording occurs at fixed points for a specified length of time, the variableof interest is measured if it falls within that time frame from all cases. Forexample, a manager might be interested in how often her employees checktheir email during the day. With the assistance of her IT department, shemonitors email access during three times: 2:00, 3:00, and 4:00 for 10minutes each time. If employees access their email, she measures not onlyaccess, but duration of access (were they on email for 2 minutes, 7 minutes,or all 10 minutes). From this study, an assessment about the disruptiveness
of email might be determined. Over a prolonged period, if the samples aredrawn randomly, time sampling can give a good estimate of the pattern ofactivities.Withcontinuous real-time sampling, any and all behavior during thespecified time of the behavior is recorded; behavior of the sampled case aswell as behavior by others. For example, imagine you plan professionalconferences for a living. You are interested in how attendees use breaksbetween conference sessions. You might record the spaces outside theconference sessions during breaks and study the various behaviors (doattendees exchange contact information, discuss on conference topics,make plans to meet for dinner or drinks; contact their office or makepersonal calls, work on tablets or desktops, enter restroom facilities; returnto sessions or remain in break spaces, etc.) Any and all behaviors arecaptured, and you likely have anticipated some of these behaviors, so youcan check off how often each occurs, even recording what men and womenattendees do. In this study, we might assess the placement of refreshments,seating capacity in break spaces, and time frame allotted for breaks.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Sam
Tags
researcher

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