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Subsequently motor signals are relayed back to numer

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Subsequently, motor signals are relayed back to numer-ous segmental levels to adjust posture and performother actions.It is important to recognize that not only is the pre-cise functioning of the musculoskeletal and nervous sys-tems essential for motor control, but cognition alsoplays an important role. Cognitive factors are necessaryto assimilate sensory information, process and integratethe information, and determine appropriate movementsand postures at any given instant. Furthermore, memoryof movement and the ability to recall movement infor-mation are integral components to the regulation ofposture and movement.The execution and efficiency ofmovement are further influenced by factors such as theability to concentrate; the presence or absence of visual,auditory, mental or emotional distractions;one’s level ofproficiency;and one’s motivation.Likewise, cognitivestrategies influence motor control.70-74The more often a motor pattern is learned, the lessinput from the cortical level is required until the motorpattern becomes subcortical, not requiring consciousthought to produce accuracy. We see this result when wewalk. As toddlers, we used our cortex a great deal to pro-vide us with feedback to balance our body weight over ourfeet, put one foot in front of the other, change theposition of our center of mass, and move forward. As weperfected our gait,we were able to walk without consciouscorrection, relying on our subcortical nervous innervationand corrections to move safely and securely in our envi-ronment.Motor learningis concerned with how motorskills are acquired and how they are made proficient,transferred, and retained to allow consistent, accurate, andautomatic motion.The reader is referred to other sourcesa complete discussion of motor learning.75,76Health care professionals work to enhance motorcontrol and motor performance in patients as well ashealthy individuals engaged in competitive or leisuresports activities and wellness programs. Interventionprograms are designed to stretch and strengthen mus-cles, to increase endurance, to improve balance and112B A S I C C O N C E P T SPRACTICE POINTThe most common clinical condition that results from pathology inthe basal ganglia is Parkinson’s disease in which patients exhibit aresting tremor, difficulty initiating movement (akinesia), slowness ofmovement (bradykinesia), muscular rigidity, and a stooped posture.This progressive disease, with a mean onset age of 58, is caused bya gradual loss of neurons that produce dopamine (a neurotransmit-ter) in the basal ganglia.69
muscle tone, and to improve the ability to regulate pos-ture and movement.These professionals also realize theimportance of practice to enhance skill and recognizethat more than just the neuromusculoskeletal systemmust be enhanced to augment performance. It is impor-tant to acknowledge that cognitive strategies such asmental practice and imagery,as well as positive self-talk,are important for the client’s success.75-77Principles ofcognition used to enhance motor performance may beapplied clinically so that an individual’s mindset forrehabilitation is productive to facilitate recovery.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Veneziano
Tags
Muscle activity

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