Pressures to behave a certain way by organization

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Pressures to behave a certain way by organization, organizational culture, host culture, or authority or governmental figures. Ignorance, lack of complete information or understanding of consequences of certain behavior/decisions. Distance from the ethical event, often involving reliance on others to act responsibly (Nike, Kathy Lee Gifford, and other examples). The Roots of Unethical Behavior Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: First the Straw Man Approaches A straw man approach sets up arguments that will fail. These arguments take somewhat extreme positions. Though adopted by some, these approaches do not work well for most MNCs. The Friedman Doctrine -- the only responsibility of business is to increase profits lawfully. Cultural Relativism believes it is always okay to follow local culture. Thus, ethical positions vary across cultures. The Righteous Moralist claims that a multinational’s home-country standards of ethics are the appropriate ones in all countries. (An ethnocentric view. What if the 12 year old needs the job?) The Naïve Immoralist asserts that if other firms are not following ethical norms in a host country then they should not either. (Everyone else has workers on 12 hour shifts . . .) Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics
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Utilitarian ethics focuses on consequences. An ethical action should lead to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad consequences. Yet, there are problems: o It is often hard to measure the benefits, costs, and risks of an action. o Utilitarianism does not consider justice, so the minority will always be at a disadvantage. Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics Kantian ethics hold that people should be treated as ends and never purely as means to the ends of others o People are not instruments or things to be used. o People have dignity and need to be respected. o Kantian ethics are viewed as incomplete. His theory does not incorporate any emotions.
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Christopher Reinemann
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