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Key thinkers include Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.trochee: see meterunderstatement: See “meiosis.”verse: A broad term, verse refers to a piece of writing that is metered and rhythmic. (Free verse is an exception to this, being a piece of writing grouped with verse rather than prose, even though it lacks a meter.) The term verse can also be used to refer to poetry in general. verisimilitude: the elements of a work that blend to make it believable and real. Presentational theater purposefully rejects verisimilitude; this kind of drama never wants the audience to forget that it is watching a play. Thus, it can be argued that presentational theater is more honest than other art forms, because it is not trying to lie to the audience.vignette: a short narrative scene or description, often one in a series. If a story or novel is composed of a series of vignettes, it often relies on a thematic, rather than a plot-driven, structure.villanelle: a form of poetry in which five tercets (rhyme scheme aba) are followed by a quatrain (rhyme scheme abaa). At the end of the tercets two and four,
Terms to know prior to the AP English Literature and Language Examthe first line of tercet one is repeated. At the end of tercets three and five, the last line of tercet one is repeated. These two repeated lines, called refrain lines, are again repeated to conclude the quatrain. Much of the power of this form lies in its repeated lines and their subtly shifting sense or meaning over the course of the poem.wit: In modern usage, wit is intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. A witty statement is humorous, while suggesting the speaker’s verbal power in creating ingenious and perceptive remarks. Wit usually usesterse language that makes a pointed statement. Historically, wit originally meant basic understanding. Its meaning evolved to include speed of understanding, it grew to mean quick perception including creative fancy.wordplay: Techniques by which writers manipulate language for effect; examples include puns (the deliberate misuse of words that sound alike) or double entendres (expressions with two meanings)zeugma: Pronounce zoyg-muh, a technique in which one verb is used with multiple (and often incongruous) objects, so that the definition of the verb is changed,complicate, or made both literal and figurative. EAMPLE: The carried chess sets, basketballs, Vietnamese-English dictionaries, insignia of rank, Bronze Stars and Purple hearts, plastic cards imprinted with the Code of Conduct. They carried disease, among them malaria and dysentery. They carried lice and ringworm and leeches and paddy algae and various rots and molds. They carried the land itself – Vietnam, the place the soil – a powdery orange-red dust that covered the I boots and fatigues and faces. – Tim O’Brien, “The Things They Carried”