Clinical significance are results clinically

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Statistical significance – are results due to chance? Clinical significance – are results clinically meaningful? Statistical significance does not imply clinical meaningfulness Example
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Genetic Research Strategies Behavioral genetics Interaction between genes, experience, and behavior Phenotype vs. genotype Genotype: Genetic makeup Phenotype: Observable characteristics (e.g., eye color, degree of shyness) Focus on endophenotypes
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Genetic Research Strategies Strategies used in genetic research Family studies – behaviors/emotional traits in family members Adoption studies – separate environmental from genetic factors Twin studies – psychopathology in fraternal vs. identical twins
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Studying Behavior Over Time Rationale and overview How does the problem or behavior change over time? Important in prevention and treatment research
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Studying Behavior Over Time Time-based research strategies Longitudinal designs Cross-sectional designs cohort effect Sequential designs – combine both strategies
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Studying Behavior Across Cultures Value of cross-cultural research Overcoming ethnocentric research To clarify how psychopathology manifests in different ethnic groups Understand differing approaches to treatment
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Programs of Research Components of a research program Set of interrelated research questions Draw on several methodologies in finding answers Conducted in stages, often involving replication Allows for a more complete picture Replication is critical Protects against fluke results
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Research Ethics Institutional review boards (IRBs) & the APA ethics code Oversee the rights of human subjects participating in research Make sure research and data are handled responsibly
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Research Ethics Ethical principals Informed consent – historical evolution post WWII Competence – ability to provide consent Voluntarism – lack of coercion Full information – necessary information to make an informed decision Comprehension – understanding about benefits and risks of participation
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Summary of Research Methods Abnormal psychology is founded in the scientific method Understand the nature of abnormality and human suffering Understand the causes of psychological disorders Understand the course of psychological disorders Understand how to prevent and treat psychological disorders
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