Q is a necessary condition of P is to say that P will be true only if Q is true.Propositional logicThat part of logic that deals with the relationships holding betweensimple propositions or statements and their compounds. In propositional logic, the basic logicalterms are not, or, and, and if then.Reductio ad absurdumMeans of proving a proposition by assuming its opposite and showingthat its opposite leads to a contradiction. You then a conditional proposition “if the denial, thena contradiction.” You deny the contradiction and, using modus tollens, on the conditional, areable to infer the negation of the antecedent. That is denial of what you assumed. Being thedenial of your initial denial of a proposition, it is that very proposition, proven.Sufficient conditionA condition that is enough to establish a further statement as true.Using the horseshoe, if Q is a sufficient condition for P, then Q horseshoe P. To say that Qis sufficient for P is to say that, if Q is true, P will be true as well.

Truth tableSet of rows and columns that systematically display the truth values of basicstatements and the compound statements formed from them.Module 8: Inductive Arguments (Chapter 9)Reasoning inductively, we assume that what we will experience in the future will generally be similar to what we have experienced in the past Inductive reasoning = in which we extrapolate from experience to what we have not experienced oInductive arguments have the following characteristics: 1) The premise and the conclusion are all empirical propositions 2) the conclusion is not deductively entailed by the premise 3) The reasoning used to infer the conclusion from the premise is based onthe underlying assumption that the regularities described in the premise will persist 4) The inference is either that unexamined cases will resemble examined ones or that evidence makes an explanatory hypothesis probable All arguments are either deductive or inductiveInductive Generalizations The premises describe a number of observed objects or events as having some particular feature, and the conclusion asserts, on the basis of these observation, that all or most objects or events of the same type will have that feature. Eg: o1. Twenty percent of the 10,000 students at AB University traveled to campus by bicycle in 2008.oSo probably,o2. Twenty percent of the 11,000 students who are expected to enroll in AB University in 2010 will use bicycles to travel to campus.Terms such as probably, in all likelihood, most likely are used in inductive arguments Retrodiction = in context of prediction; reason from past case to future ones oEg. Dinosaur bones can be found in a particular region, dinosaurs once lived thereThe Sample and the Population 1. Figures for 5,000 American and Canadian women studied in the period 1980–1990 indicate that one out of every nine adult women experienced breast cancer at some point in her life.So probably, 2. In the period 2000–2010, figures will indicate that one out of every nine adult women in North America will experience breast cancer some time in her life.oA sample of 5,000 North American women studied during the period 1980-1990 serves to represent a larger population

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