Security in the knowledge that they are loved and

This preview shows page 17 - 19 out of 89 pages.

security in the knowledge that they are loved and will not be abandonedIf emotional needs are inconsistently met or if the mother rewards clinging, dependent behaviors and withholds nurturing when the child demonstrates independence → feelings of rage and fear of abandonment develop and often persist into adulthood.Subphase 4: consolidation (24 - 36 months)Individuality and sense of separateness of self are established The child has the ability to integrate both “good” and “bad”A degree of object constancy is established; mom is separate and there when love needed 17
- RELEVANCE OF OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY TO NURSING PRACTICEHelps the nurse assess the client’s level ofindividuation from primary caregivers. The emotional problems of individuals can be traced to lack of fulfillment of the tasks of separation/individuationEx: include problems related to dependency and excessive anxietyEx: an individual with borderline personality disorders is thought to be fixed in the rapprochement ph.COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY Jean Piaget AKA the father of child psychologyWorked on cognitive development theory in children based on the premise that human intelligence is an extension of biological adaptation, or one’s ability to adapt psychologically to the environment. Believed that human intelligence progresses through a series of stages (based on age) demonstrating at each successive stagea higher level of logical organization than at the previous stages.- PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTStage 1: sensorimotor (birth - 2 years)At the beginning of life, a child is concerned only with satisfying basic needs and comforts The self is not differentiated from the external environmentDifferentiation occurs with increasing mobility and awarenessKnowledge is gained about the ability to manipulate objects and experiences tObject permanence—the notion that an object will continue to exist when it is no longer present to the senses Ex: the toy still exists even if you cant see it/it is covered Stage 2: preoperational (2 - 6 years)Preoperational thoughtis characterized by egocentrism (when a personal experiences are thought to be universal) and the child is unable to accept the differing viewpoints of otherLanguage development progresses and the ability to attribute special meaning to symbolic gestures. Reality is often given to inanimate objectsObject permanence culminates in the ability to conjure up mental representations of objects or people.Stage 3: concrete operations (6 - 12 years)The ability to apply logic to thinking begins in this stage; however, “concreteness” still predominates. An understanding of reversibility and spatiality is developedEx: recognizes that changing the shape of objects does not necessarily change the amount, weight, volume, or the ability of the object to return to its original form.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture