This is what is called the greenhouse effect net

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temperature than would otherwise be the case. This is what is called the greenhouse effect. Net energy input to the ecosphere: 30% of the incident solar energy is reflected (albedo), the atmosphere and clouds absorb 18%, and most of the remainder is absorbed by the surface (hydrosphere & lithosphere). A mere 0.023% (!) is a absorbed by the biosphere via photosynthesis. Energy flow in the biosphere: Organisms in the ecosphere feed on one another. As a result, energy is transferred along a food chain. Different organisms occupy different positions along a food chain. Those positions are based on what the organisms eat and they are called trophic levels. An organism’s trophic level reflects how far removed (how many feeding levels away) it is from the original source of energy in its ecosystem. 1 st trophic level: autotrophs Organisms that absorb energy directly from their environment and make up their own food. They are also called producers. Autotrophs use some of their production (the food they make) to satisfy their own needs (growth, reproduction). The rest is stored in their tissues. The amount of energy stored is an organism’s net production. The total net production of all autotrophs in an ecosystem is its primary production.
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2 nd trophic level: primary consumers Animals are not able to make their own food. Such are organisms are called heterotrophs. Those heterotrophs that feed directly on autotrophs (i.e. herbivores) are called primary consumers.
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