E55-2009 practice exam 2 key

26 8 points a hypothesis the novel cadherin mitigates

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structures, though it is a tantalizing marker that segregates with dorsal activity. 26. (8 points) A. Hypothesis: the novel cadherin mitigates neural crest cell formation. The diverse defects observed in cartilage and heart vessel development could be explained by a common deficiency in the ability of neural crest cells to form/migrate properly. One could speculate that this cadherin makes the neural crest cells gain affinity for one another or lose affinity (to detach from) neighbors in the forming epidermis and neural plate/tube. B. gene/protein expression of the cadherin specifically in wild-type neural crest cells C. look in morpholino-injected animals at the neural crest: observe whether is it formed, does it fail to migrate, etc. 27. (4 points) 1: they specify identity of body parts/pattern formation of body parts; 2: they encode homeodomain transcription factors; 3: spatial colinearity-the anterior/posterior domain whose identity they control correlates with their 3’-5’ position within the cluster; part 4: Hox genes are redundant in vertebrates, due to the fact that they possess 4 Hox clusters, so it is likely that several genes would have to be knocked down to see a phenotype.
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