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group interviews, which involve discussions with small groups; diaries, in which respondents are asked to maintain daily records about some aspects of their lives; and photo elicitation interviews, which are guided and stimulated by photographicimages, sometimes using photos that participants themselves take (photovoice).In qualitative research, self-reports are often supplemented by direct observation in naturalistic settings. One type of unstructured observation is participant observation, in which the researcher gains entrée into a social group and participants to varying degrees in its functioning while making in-depth observations of activities and events. Maintaining logs of daily events and field notes of the experiences and interpretations are the major data collection methods.Unit 8: Chapter 13 (11/12)- Mixed methods and other special types ofresearchFor many research purposes, mixed method studies are advantageous. Mixed method research involves the collection, analysis, and integration of both quantitative and qualitative data within a study or series of studies, often with an overarching goal of achieving both discovery and verification.Mixed methods research has numerous advantages, including complementarity of quantitative and qualitative data and the practicality of using methods that best address a question. MM research has many applications, including the development and testing of instruments, theories and interventions.The paradigm most often associated with MM research is pragmatism, which has as a major tenant “dictatorship of the research question.”Key decisions in designing an MM study involve how to sequence the components and which strand (if either) will be given priority. In terms of sequencing, MM designs are either concurrent (both strands occurring in one simultaneous phase) or sequential (one strand occurring prior to and informing the second strand).30
Notation for MM research often designates priority- all capital letters for the dominant strand and all lowercase letters for the nondominant strand- and sequence. An arrow is used for sequential designs, and a “+” is used for concurrent designs. QUAL-> quan, for example, is a sequential, qualitative-dominant design.Specific MM designs include the convergent design (QUAL + QUAN), explanatory designs (e.g., QUAN->qual), and exploratory design (e.g., QUAL->quan).Sampling in MM studies can involve the same or different people in the different components. Nesting is a common sampling approach in which a subsample of the participants in one strand also participates in the other. Different disciplines have developed different approaches to (and terms for) efforts to evaluate interventions. Clinical trials which are studies designed to assess the effectiveness of clinical interventions, often involve a series of phases. Phase I is designed to finalize features of the intervention. Phase II involves seeking preliminary evidence of efficacy and opportunities for refinements. Phase III is a full experimental test of treatment efficacy. In Phase IV, the researcher focuses