Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah

Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural

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. Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah Valley , a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia. [189] Sherman's March to the Sea Meanwhile, Sherman maneuvered from Chattanooga to Atlanta, defeating Confederate Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John Bell Hood along the way. The fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as president. [190] Hood left the Atlanta area to swing around and menace Sherman's supply lines and invade Tennessee in the Franklin–Nashville Campaign . Union Maj. Gen. John Schofield defeated Hood at the Battle of Franklin , and George H. Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville , effectively destroying Hood's army. [191] The Peacemakers by George Peter Alexander Healy portrays Sherman , Grant , Lincoln , and Porter discussing plans for the last weeks of the Civil War aboard the steamer River Queen in March 1865. Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20 percent of the farms in Georgia in his " March to the Sea ". He reached the Atlantic Ocean at Savannah , Georgia in December 1864. Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the March. Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines from the south, increasing the pressure on Lee's army. [192] The Waterloo of the Confederacy Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's. One last Confederate attempt to break the Union hold on Petersburg failed at the decisive Battle of Five Forks (sometimes called "the Waterloo of the Confederacy") on April 1. This meant that the Union now controlled the entire perimeter surrounding Richmond-Petersburg, completely cutting it off from the Confederacy. Realizing that the capital was now lost, Lee decided to evacuate his army. The Confederate capital fell to the Union XXV Corps , composed of black troops. The remaining Confederate units fled west after a defeat at Sayler's Creek . [193] Confederacy surrenders Main article: Conclusion of the American Civil War
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Map of Confederate territory losses year by year Initially, Lee did not intend to surrender, but planned to regroup at the village of Appomattox Court House , where supplies were to be waiting, and then continue the war. Grant chased Lee and got in front of him, so that when Lee's army reached Appomattox Court House, they were surrounded. After an initial battle, Lee decided that the fight was now hopeless, and surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at the McLean House . [194] In an untraditional gesture and as a sign of Grant's respect and anticipation of peacefully restoring Confederate states to the Union, Lee was permitted to keep his sword and his horse, Traveller .
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