4 times daily for up to 7 days Safety Very dangerous if ingested Keep out of

4 times daily for up to 7 days safety very dangerous

This preview shows page 29 - 41 out of 86 pages.

4 times daily for up to 7 days Safety Very dangerous if ingested Keep out of reach of children Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Counterirritants
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Trade Name Primary Ingredients Blue Star Ointment Camphor 1.24% Sarna Anti-itch Lotion Original Camphor 0.5%; menthol 0.5% Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Counterirritants (Table 37-3)
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Example: Topical hydrocortisone 1% Indication: temporary relief of minor insect bites Dosing: Apply to the bite area up to 3 4 times daily for up to 7 days Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Corticosteroids
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Trade Name Primary Ingredients Aveeno Maximum Strength Anti-itch Cream Hydrocortisone 1%; aloe vera Cortaid Intense Therapy Cooling Spray Hydrocortisone 1% Cortizone-10 Easy Relief Liquid Hydrocortisone 1%; aloe vera Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Corticosteroids (Table 37-3)
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Examples: zinc oxide, calamine, and titanium dioxide Dosage forms: lotions, ointments, and creams MOA: Protectant, tend to reduce inflammation and irritation Zinc oxide mild astringent with weak antiseptic properties Zinc oxide and calamine absorb fluids from weeping lesions Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Skin Protectants
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Dosing: Apply to affected area as needed Safety: minimal adverse effects Recommended for adults, children, and infants Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Skin Protectants
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Trade Name Primary Ingredients Aveeno Anti-Itch Concentrated Lotion Pramoxine HCl 1%; calamine 3%; dimethicone Caladryl Clear Lotion Pramoxine HCl 1%; acetate 0.1%; camphor Campho-Phenique Gel Camphor 10.8%; phenol 4.7%; eucalyptus oil Chigarid External Analgesic Camphor 2.8%; phenol 1.5%; menthol 0.1%; eucalyptus oil 0.5% in collodion StingEze Insect Bite Relief Benzocaine 5%; phenol 1.35% Sting-Kill Swabs Benzocaine 20%; menthol 1% Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Combination Products (Table 37-3)
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Use and overuse of local anesthetics sensitization, contact dermatitis Lowest adverse effects pramoxine, benzyl alcohol Highest adverse effects dibucaine, phenol Prolonged use of topical antihistamines allergic or photoallergic contact dermatitis Scabies / bacterial infections / fungal infections do NOT use hydrocortisone without medical supervision (masks these disorders) Children avoid camphor due to risk of accidental ingestion Pharmacologic Treatment of Insect Bites: Product Selection
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Bees Wasps Hornets Yellow jackets Fire ants Pathophysiology of Insect Stings
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Pain, itching, and irritation at the site following an insect sting Insect sting allergy hives, itching, swelling, and burning sensations of the skin Severe allergy fall in blood pressure, light-headedness, chest tightness, dyspnea, and even loss of consciousness Clinical Presentation of Insect Stings
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Hives, excessive swelling, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing Significant allergic response away from site of sting Previous sting by honeybee, wasp, or hornet (need to evaluate possible development of hypersensitivity) Previous severe reaction to insect bites Personal or family history of significant allergic reactions (e.g., hay fever) < 2 years of age Exclusions for Self-Treatment of Insect Stings
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