Thesis Final Report (long)

22 motives and needs arnold and reynolds 2003

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2.2 Motives and Needs Arnold and Reynolds (2003) conducted a detailed analysis of consumers’ hedonic shopping motivations. As per their research, a six factor scale has been developed that consists of adventure, gratification, role, value, social and idea shopping motivations. There has been limited amount of research on why individuals haggle. There can be many needs and motives behind this haggling behavior of individuals. These needs and motives, of both buyer and seller, are developed based on a two way interaction between them. Reiss (2004) in his theory of the 16 basic desires explains various desires that motivate human actions. Table 2.2-1 Motives Identified (Reiss 2004) Drives Includes Acceptance Curiosity Honor Idealism Independence, Order Power Romance Saving Social Contact Status Tranquility Vengeance Eating Family Physical exercise Desire for approval Desire for knowledge Desire to obey a traditional moral code Desire to improve society (including altruism, justice) Desire to be autonomous Desire to organize (including desire for ritual) Desire to influence (including leadership; related to mastery) Desire for sex (including courting) Desire to collect, value of frugality Desire for peer companionship (desire to play) Desire for social standing (including desire for attention) Desire to avoid anxiety, fear Desire to get even (including desire to compete, to win) Desire to eat Desire to raise own children Desire to exercise muscles From the buyer’s perspective, Jones et al. (1997) claim that the main reason on why a consumer bargains is to get a better price and save money. Furthermore, they add that bargaining awards 6
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buyers with a sense of achievement, dominance and affiliation. He adds that all of the above is achieved because the buyer manages to indulge into the haggling process by having control of the situation and maintain the level of social interaction during the process. Moss (2007) suggests that bargaining can be considered as an entertainment as finding the right product at a good price adds up to the entertainment component. Moreover, Khuri (1968) stated that bargaining can also enable an individual to gain social recognition among his group who consider him to know the rules of bargaining etiquette and then value his choices. Adding to his views, Sudweeks and Simoff (2001) state that the transaction conducted at the bazaar of an Islamic country is influenced by “cultural experiences, emotions and changes in attitude”. The seller’s motive to participate in the haggling process could include pulling ahead of competition and building upon credibility by developing relationships with buyers in the market (Wheeler 2005). However, haggling is also encouraged by sellers. Sharma and Krishnan (2001) point out that sellers not only are coping with buyers bargaining for goods but are now also encouraging them to do so.
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