Acid baseneutralization reaction acid reacts with a

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Acid-base(neutralization) reaction: acid reacts with a base and the two neutralize each other producing water. (or a weak electrolyte) Gas-evolution reaction: gas forms, resulting in bubbling Acids: substances that produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions Base: produce OH- ions Hydronium ions: protons associate with water molecules Polyprotic acids: contain more than one ionizable proton and then release them Oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions: electrons transferred from one reactant to the other Oxidation: loss of electrons Reduction: gain of electrons Oxidation number: given to each atom based on the electron assignments. “charge” Rules for assigning oxidation states 1. Metals tend to be oxidized (lose electrons) 2. Nonmetals tend to be reduced ( gain electrons) 3. Elements have oxidation states of zero (free) 4. Neutral molecules have a total oxidation state of 0
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5. Polyatomic ions oxidation state equal to its charge 6. Metals: group 1A: +1, group 2A: +2 7. Non metals tend to be: F 1-, O 2-, H 1+, 7A 1-, 6A 2-, 5A 3- Chapter 5: Gases Boyles Law: pressure and volume are inversely related Charles Law: as temperature increase, volume increases Volume/ Temp. = constant Avogadro’s Law: as amount of gas increase, volume increase (at constant temperature and pressure. V=constant * #moles Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT Pressure * Volume * # of moles *constant * temperature
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