Trauma congenital obstructed airway breathing

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Trauma, congenital - Obstructed airway, breathing problems, bloody nose, sinusitis - Corrected with septoplasty: returns septum to midline
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Rhinitis: - Inflamed nasal mucosa - Caused by cold, flu - Excessive production of mucus = runny nose, congestion etc. Epistaxis - Nosebleeds - Most common: Kisselbach’s plexus (anastomosis of facial, maxillary and ophthalmic arteries), in the anterior 1/3 - Mild: from tearing of veins - Severe spurting of blood: when arteries have been torn - Nasal mucosa has a very rich blood supply needs this to keep air warm for filtering Sinusitis: - Infection of the nasal cavities o Huge disadvantage: the paranasal sinuses all drain into the nasal cavities—therefore the infection spreads around - Swelling= localized pain - The maxillary sinus is most likely infected - Over production of mucus—cilia can only deal with so much so after too much = localized pain Asthma (under umbrella of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD) : - Hypersensitivity to allergens - Bronchoconstriction and excess mucous secretion (clogs cilia from beating) - Causes are unknown but smoking, genetics, allergies are factors - Coughing, shortness of breath
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- A puffer: inserts Broncho-dilating steroid into respiratory tract to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles so gas exchange can happen properly Chronic bronchitis (under umbrella of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD) : - Shortness of breath, coughing, excess mucous, inflamed bronchi, history of smoking (this is the main cause) - Cilia become damaged: cilia cannot propel waste out of tract = respiratory infection ***Main difference between asthma and chronic bronchitis: asthma can be reversed with bronchodilators, and chronic bronchitis can not Collapsed Lung : - Severe chest pain, hacking cough, difficulty breathing, chest injuries - Pleural membrane damaged and elastic lung collapses - Ruins the abilities of the serous membrane to keep lung open Emphysema - Shortness of breath, history of smoking, bacterial infection, inflammation, barrel chest (rib cage sticking out) - Tissue damage to alveoli – alveoli are over- inflated - As rib cage remains expanded all the time—the chest is larger (aka barrel chest) Newborn with deflated alveoli: - Newborn, rapid breathing (trying to fill up alveoli), blue skin (hard to get enough O2), rapid heart rate, recessing chest wall - Type 2 alveoli cells are not producing their surfactant - Baby can be put on respirator until surfactant can be generated enough to get type 2 cells working Hemorrhoids: Internal: - The internal rectal plexus is compressed by sphincters and stops blood flow
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- Internal plexus is above pectinate line—therefore, there is no pain External - The external rectal plexus is compressed by thromboses (blood clots) in the veins - External plexus is below the pectinate line—therefore, IS painful Polycystic Kidney Disease - Fluid filled cysts form in the kidney - Genetic - Renal failure, usually bilateral - May need transplant Calculi stones (kidney stones) - Precipitated uric acid, calcium, oxalate - Stones can form in kidney but get lodged anywhere in the tract : ureter, urethra, bladder - “loin to groin” pain Muscles for the Final Exam Anatomy 3319 Region Muscle Function Attachmen t Soft Palate Tensor Veli Palatini Tenses soft palate N/A Lavator Veli Palatini Elevates soft palate Palatopharyngeous Pulls soft palate down (after elevation)/ elevates pharynx
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  • Spring '14
  • Mucus, Peritoneum, celiac artery

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