Complexity of sentence increased recall eg watch he

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Complexity of sentence increased recall e.g., WATCH He dropped the _____ vs The old man picked up the valuable _____ from the mahogany table oElaboration makes the item more distinctive (unique)Participants presented with series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three q’s. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic) and others in a shallowway (e.g. structural and phonemic). For example:oStructural / visual processing: ‘Is the word in capital letters or small letters?oPhonemic / auditory processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’oSemantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words.ResultsoParticipants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words. ConclusionoSemantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing which results in more accurate recall. Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall.Application: levels of processing during note taking (Mueller et al.)Is note taking with a laptop harmful to learning?
PSY246 Cognitive Processes IEarlier studies focused on their distracting effectsThis study focused on type of note takingNotetaking is beneficial for learning:oExternal storage hypothesis: benefits of the ability to review materialoEncoding hypothesis: processing that occurs during notetaking improves learning and retentionNote takingCan be: Generative: summarizing, paraphrasing, concept mapping = deeper processingNongenerative: verbatim copying, shallow processing Laptop use encourages verbatim transcription of lecture content because students can type faster than write Retrieval processes Varieties of memory testsExplicit memory tests:oFree recall- min. info and asked to recall oCued recall- given a cue oRecognition - given the item and asked if it was presented or notImplicitmemory tests ( makes noreference to the study episode)Explicit memoryinvolves conscious recollection of memoryImplicit memorydoes not depend on conscious recollection Distinctiveness characterises memory traces that are distinct or different from other memory traces in LTMEncoding specificity principle (Tulving)Cue-dependent forgetting Memory performance is better when the context at encoding (study) and the context at retrieval (test) matchRecognition failure of recallable words:Typically recognition is easier than recall, but:Tulving & Thomspon (1973)1Study phase: Ss learn a list of weakly associated cue-target pairs (e.g., black-ENGINE) 2Ss were then given strong associates of target words and asked to generate associates (e.g., steam-?) (not a memory test) 3Ss were asked to circle target words that were presented earlier (recognition test) 4

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Term
Fall
Professor
Ricci
Tags
Cognitive Psychology, Working Memory, cognitive processes, Baddeley

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