During this period, there was massive expansion of the Congregationalist, Anglicans, Baptists, Quakers, and Presbyterians -Unitarians and Freemasons 1. Unitarians believed in the unity of God- Jesus and the Holy Spirit are important, but neither are equal to God the father. a. Also believed that humans were born without Original Sin- a huge reversal from the theology of Jonathan Edward and the Puritans, from whom they draw their spiritual lineage. 2. The Freemasons, formally known as the Secret Society of Freemasons, traced their lineage to ancient Egypt- the influence of the Freemasons is best seen on the dollar bill- the symbol of the pyramid a. Originated in England b. Heavily influenced by the Enlightenment- for them God was a grand architect, who was above all a reasonable God -1 st Amendment and the three reasons for separation of church and state 1. Reasons to separate church and state a. Reason 1: Thomas Jefferson argued that people should be free to choose their own religion, and government should not make any laws that interfere with this choice. He believed there should be no funding for religion but also no taxes b. Reason 2: Isaac Backus a Baptist pastor believed that it was not fair for the government to support on religious group over the other. c. Reason 3: the argument for a secular state comes from Jefferson’s friend and author of the first amendment, James Madison- he felt it was just not practical for a new nation with so many Protestant religious traditions to have a state religion 2. These reasons combined the first amendment, makes the US a secular state meaning the government is technically neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion or the lack thereof. This does not go against what many people believe. -2 nd Great Awakening, the Benevolent Empire, New Religious Movements, and Manifest Destiny 1. Second Great Awakening (1800-1830 *roughly) a. Slight differences from the First Great Awakening (FGA) b. Preachers told their congregants that God had given them the ability to reach out their hand and accept the grace of God- the choice was in the hands of men and women- thus we have a move from humans as passive to humans as active c. During this Awakening there were a plethora of religious revivals, and the most famous was the Cane Ridge Revival in 1801 2. Benevolent Empire a. During the Second Great Awakening the growing network of reform societies was referred to as the Benevolent Empire, which at one time, had a greater budget then that of the federal government. 3. New Religious Movements a. Millerites and calculating the end of the world (twice)
i. Became the 7th day Adventists b. Mother Ann Lee and the Shakers i. Practiced radical celibacy and adopted children ii. 2 members left today c. Oneida Perfectionists i. Sharing, divine healing, confession, and complex marriage d. Campbellites- restore the church and go back to Biblical times i. Now there are primitive Baptists ii. Issue of this- there was not formal Christianity when Jesus was alive e. Mormons i.
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