Management done by user level threads library three

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 - management done by user-level threads library Three primary thread libraries:  POSIX  Pthreads   (refer to the POSIX Standard (IEEE 1003.1c) defining an API for thread creation and  synchronization.  Windows threads (win32 API)  Java threads Kernel threads  - Supported by the Kernel Examples – virtually all general purpose operating systems, including: Windows  Solaris Linux Tru64 UNIX Mac OS X *API  (Application Programming Interface) a set of functions and procedures that allow the creation of applications which access the features or data  of an operating system, application, or other service.
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4.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition Multithreading Models Many-to-One One-to-One Many-to-Many
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4.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition Many-to-One Many user-level threads mapped to  single kernel thread One thread blocking causes all to block Multiple threads may not run in parallel  on muticore system because only one  may be in kernel at a time Few systems currently use this model Examples: Solaris Green Threads GNU Portable Threads
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4.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition One-to-One Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread Creating a user-level thread creates a kernel thread More concurrency than many-to-one Number of threads per process sometimes  restricted due to overhead Examples Windows Linux Solaris 9 and later
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4.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition Many-to-Many Model Allows many user level threads to be  mapped to many kernel threads Allows the  operating system to create  a sufficient number of kernel threads Solaris prior to version 9 Windows  with the  ThreadFiber   package
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4.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition Thread Libraries Thread library   provides programmer with API for creating  and managing threads Two primary ways of implementing Library entirely in user space Kernel-level library supported by the OS
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4.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  © 2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th  Edition Pthreads May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and  synchronization Specification , not  implementation
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