[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

Kulenkampffs formula 69 of continuous x rays with

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Kulenkampff’s formula [69] of continuous X-rays with their own measured intensity ratios of continuous X-rays and tungsten L series X-rays from a side window X-ray tube. Criss and Birks [70] developed the method further by measuring the primary X-ray intensity distributions from side window X-ray tubes and using mini-computer systems to control X-ray fluorescence spectro- meters [71]. To improve the performance of an X-ray spectrometer, a high-power end window X-ray tube with a thin beryllium window was developed by Machlett Laboratories, Inc. [39]. A remarkable improvement in the analytical perfor- mances for light elements was achieved by a close coupling of the X-ray source with the sample and a high transmittance window. In order to accomplish a reliable fundamental parameter method, the primary X-ray distributions from end window X-ray tubes were measured by Arai, Shoji, and Omote. It was found that the output of the X-ray spectral distribution in the long wavelength region was increased [72]. Figure 1.4 shows the comparison between measured and calculated inten- sities of various steels and alloy metals. At low concentrations background intensity corrections should be applied and at the higher intensity ranges the measured intensity requires a counting loss correction. Samples used in Fig. 1.4 are shown in Table 1.2. Using calculated X-ray intensities, matrix correction coefficients and cor- rection equations have been inspected, and methods using variable correction
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18 T. Arai 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (a) Ni - Fe binary Ni - Cu Ni - Cu - Zn Ni K a intensity Ni content [wt%] 1 10 100 1 10 100 (b) { 70 wt% Ni 50 wt% Ni { Low alloy steel } Stainless steel Measured NiK a intensity Calculated NiK a intensity 0 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (c) Fe - Cr binary Fe - Ni binary Binary alloys Alloys containing Cr 10 wt% or higher Other alloys Fe K a intensity Fe content [wt%] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 10 100 1 10 100 (d) Ni-Cr-Co high-temperature alloy Fe - 2 wt% High-temperature alloy Fe - 20 wt% { { { Stainless steel Fe - 76 wt% Measured Fe K a intensity Calculated Fe K a Intensity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (e) Cr 2 O 3 Cr Fe binary Fe - Cr binary alloys Stainless steels or heat-resistant alloys CrK a intensity Cr content [wt%] 0.1 1 10 100 0.1 1 10 100 (f) Cr 2 O 3 Cr 0.01~0.05 wt% } } Low alloy steel Stainless steel High-temperature alloy { Measured Cr K a intensity Calculate Cr K a intensity Fig. 1.4. ( a ) Relationship between nickel concentration and Ni-K α intensities, ( b ) Relationship between iron concentration and Fe-K α intensities, ( c ) Relationship between chromium concentration and Cr-K α intensities, ( d ) Comparison between calculated and measured Fe-K α intensities, ( e ) Comparison between calculated and measured Fe-K α intensities, ( f ) Comparison between calculated and measured Cr-K α intensities
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1 Introduction 19 Table 1.2. Measured samples in Fig. 1.4 Low alloy steel Heat-resistant steel Tool steel Magnetic alloy Stainless steel High-speed steel Binary alloy German silver High-temperature alloy Magnetic steel
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