# It was my fascination with chess that led to my

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different things in chess whereas in checkers, each piece is the same. It was my fascination with chess that led to my curiosity in computer chess. Computer chess is chess but rather that playing a human, you play the computer. I was curious as to how people were able to implement the complex game of chess into the computer. I wanted to know how the computer decided where to move and how it knew what the best move was. I also wanted to know how changing the difficulty of the game changed the moves that the computer made. For example, if I changed the difficulty form easy to hard, I wanted to know how the computers moves would be different. The main reason I chose chess was my curiosity in computer chess but then I realized how it was

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connected to the things we were learning in class. I remember when we learned about the minimax algorithm involving the nim game and I thought what if computer chess used the same algorithm. After doing some research and looking at the similarities between what we learned in class and the algorithms involved with computer chess, I decided to write my paper on chess. After reading everything above, you have probably realized what a complex game chess compared to checkers or tic tack toe. I will focus more on computer chess than regular chess. When computer chess was first thought of, there were numerous questions that arose and they mostly involved artificial intelligence. Since it is a computer and not a human, how would the computer decide where to move a chess piece and what strategy to use? How would the computer be able to comprehend the opponent’s move? As technology advanced, these questions were slowly answered. The three main problems with implementing chess into the computer were board representation, search techniques, and leaf evaluation. When programming chess, there are two possible search techniques that can be used: Type A and Type B (Wikipedia). Type A uses something called a brute force approach which examines all possible positions for a fixed number of moves using the minimax algorithm. The minimax algorithm is applied two player logic games (Marsland, 5). The algorithm uses the fact that the two players are working towards opposite goals (the player wants to win) to make predictions about which future states/positions will be reached as the game progresses, and then proceeds accordingly to optimize its chance of victory. With the algorithm, it is possible to know from a given point in the game, what the next possible moves are (Brian). So basically, it determines what the optimal move is for the game. In the search tree, there are two nodes: nodes representing your moves and nodes representing your opponent’s moves. Nodes representing
your moves are MAX nodes and the goal is to choose the greatest value of the MAX node.

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• Fall '12
• MariedesJardins
• Computer chess

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