440 g of protein is retained by the woman going to the fetus 166g gained by

440 g of protein is retained by the woman going to

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440 g of protein is retained by the woman, going to the fetus +166g gained by uterus + 81g in blood volume from proteins in blood: albumin; Hgb +100g accumulated by placenta +135g accumulated by extracellular fluid +3g from amniotic fluid Total: 925g Divided by the number of days and efficiency of protein utilization into new tissue protein Not constant throughout pregnancy b/c growth of fetus is sigmoidal Need lower in 1 st trimester, need most in 2 nd trimester o Excess protein during pregnancy by the mother leads to reduction in BW of the fetus by about 70g (>85g protein/day) Too little and too much protein lead to a lower weight fetus o Inadequate protein Lower weight and shorter infant risk of miscarriage and anemia of the mother PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF BREAST MILK - Breast milk is not a dead tissue (cow milk is because its pasteurized) and has many benefits: o Has active amylase, transaminsases, proteases, lipases, ribonucleases, etc. which aids in digestion o enzyme activity in breast milk than in colostrum o High in Abs o Immunoglobulins greater in colostrum to help with immunity - Mother who gives birth to a premature infant has a different composition of milk to allow catch up growth for baby: Day 1 Day 28 Pre term Milk Full term Milk PT FT Protein (g/dL) 3.24* 2.29 1.81* 1.42 Fat 1.63 1.71 4.00 4.01 Lactose 5.96 6.16 6.95 7.26 NRG (kcal/dL) 51.4 48.7 70.1 69.7 o Pre term infant should be nursed by mother who gave birth to her
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SFLORES_3/31/2014 59 - Mammalian milks: Protein Lactose Fat % Ash % (mineral content) NRG (kcal/ml) Doubling Time (d) Human- full term 1.2 7.0 3.8 0.2 0.7 120-180d Horse 2.2 6.6 1.7 0.5 0.55 60 Cow 3.2 4.8 3.7 0.72 0.72 47 Goat 3.3 4.7 4.1 0.7 0.76 22 Camel 3.9 5.4 2.9 0.74 0.63 -- Sheep 5.4 4.3 6.2 0.86 1.06 15 Cat 7 3 11 1.02 1.4 9.5 Dog 7.5 3.7 8.3 1.2 1.2 9 Rabbit 10 1.0 9-14 2.2 1.4 6 Blue Whale 12.0 1.0 42 1.6 4.6 -- o Putting child on cow milk before 1 year of age too early is bad because mineral content is too high and causes low grade bleeding/ blood loss - Protein % in mammalian milk is directly related to growth rate of young; the faster the doubling rate (amt of time it takes for young to double their weight) the higher the [protein] - Points to note: o Higher protein content of the milk = faster growth rate (expressed as doubling time) o The fat content of aquatic mammal milk is very high Some seals nurse on land, and by producing more concentrated milk for NRG that their water requirement because they don't get to the water in between these feedings o Rabbits have high fat protein and fat because they suckle infrequently and have to get in all their NRG and protein in those few suckling periods o Casein and whey/lactalbumin are the two primary proteins in cow milk (lactalbumin more common in humans) Whey is more easily digested versus casein which is easily precipitated by the acid of the stomach - Milk composition changes at a single feeding. So when the baby begins suckling over 15 minutes, the composition of the mothers milk becomes more dilute and less NRG dense so that the baby doesn’t get overfed
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  • Spring '14
  • Knutson,MitchellD
  • NRG

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