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Right Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: E
1. Which more nearly describes the modern view of geology? A. The Earth’s lithosphere is broken into numerous small plates, and most mountain building is caused by hot spots. B. The Earth’s lithosphere is broken into numerous small plates, and most mountain building is caused by meteorite impacts. C. The Earth’s mantle is broken into a few major plates, and most mountain building occurs near their centers. D. The Earth’s lithosphere is broken into a few major plates, and most mountain building occurs near their centers. E.
The Earth’s lithosphere is broken into a few major plates, and most mountain building occurs near their edges. Numerous small plates wouldn’t work. The Earth’s cold upper layer that tends to break rather than flow is something around 100 miles thick. It is fairly easy to break the upper layer into pieces that are many hundreds of miles or more across, but difficult to break the upper layer into smaller pieces, just as most of the material from a broken coffee cup ends up in a few big chunks that you could almost glue back together. Hot spots do make mountains, but most mountains are made in other ways. Meteorite impacts can make craters with mountains around the edges, but such craters are rare. The big plates have mountain-building near their edges. In the same way, if you crash your car into a building, the edges of the car and of the building will be broken and bent, but the central regions survive better—you wouldn’t want to be tied on the bumper when your car hit the building! Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: E 2. What tectonic setting is primarily responsible for producing Crater Lake? A. Hot-spot. B. Slide-past.
C. Push-together subduction. D. Pull-apart. E. Push-together obduction. Crater Lake, the hole left by the cataclysmic eruption of Mt. Mazama, sits above a subduction zone, where one tectonic plate goes below another as they come together. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C 3. What tectonic setting is primarily responsible for producing Hawaii's volcanoes?
The hot spot of Hawaii pokes through the drifting plate of the Pacific Ocean to make a volcano; then that volcano drifts away and the hot spot pokes through to make a new volcano. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: Hot Spot 4. A common way in which Philadelphia-size or bigger bodies of rock that were heated and squeezed deep in a mountain range then end up at the surface of the Earth is: A. Graham Spanier digs them up. B. Giant marmots dig them up. C. Volcanoes pick them up and throw them to the surface.
D. Erosion removes the overlying mountains, and the deeper rocks float to the surface. E. Erosion unbalances mountain ranges, which then roll over, just as some icebergs are observed to roll over after melting unbalances them.