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Atmosphere probably initially produced through

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Atmosphere probably initially produced through outgassing.Loss of gasses from a planet’s atmosphere: Compare typical velocityof gas molecules to escape velocityGas molecule velocity greater than escape velocity gasses escape into space.Mars has lost all lighter gasses; retained only heavier gasses (CO2).
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 12
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
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The Geology of MarsGiant volcanoesValleysImpact cratersVallis MarinerisReddish deserts of broken rock, probably smashed by meteorite impacts.
The Geology of Mars (2)Northern Lowlands: Free of craters; probably re-surfaced a few billion years ago.Southern Highlands: Heavily cratered; probably 2 – 3 billion years old.Possibly once filled with water.
Volcanism on MarsVolcanoes on Mars are shield volcanoes. Olympus Mons:Highest and largest volcano in the solar system.
Volcanism on Mars (2)Tharsis rise(volcanic bulge):Nearly as large as the U.S.Rises ~ 10 km above mean radius of Mars.Rising magma has repeatedly broken through crust to form volcanoes.
Hidden Water on MarsNo liquid water on the surface:Would evaporate due to low pressure.But evidence for liquid water in the past:Outflow channels from sudden, massive floodsCollapsed structures after withdrawal of sub-surface waterSplash craters and valleys resembling meandering river bedsGullies, possibly from debris flowsCentral channel in a valley suggests long-term flowing water
Hidden Water on Mars (2)Gusev Crater and Ma’adim Vallis: Giant lakes might have drained repeatedly through the Ma’adim Vallis into the crater.
The Moons of MarsPhobosDeimosTwo small moons: Phobos and Deimos.Too small to pull themselves into spherical shape.Very close to Mars; orbits around Mars faster than Mars’ rotation.Typical of small, rocky bodies: Dark grey, low density.Probably captured from outer asteroid belt.
subsolar pointcomposite volcanoshield volcanocoronaoutflow channelvalley networkNew Terms

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An Introduction to Physical Science
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 12
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
Expert Verified

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