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Most famous was the school in Strasbourg founded byJohannes Sturm in 1538, which served as a model forother Protestant schools. John Calvin’s Genevan Acad-emy, founded in 1559, was organized in two distinctparts. The ‘‘private school’’ or gymnasium was dividedinto seven classes for young people who were taughtLatin and Greek grammar and literature as well as logic.In the ‘‘public school,’’ students were taught philosophy,Hebrew, Greek, and theology. The Genevan Academy,which eventually became a university, came to concen-trate on preparing ministers to spread the Calvinist viewof the Gospel.Religious Practices and Popular CultureThe Protestant reformers’ attacks on the Catholic Churchled to radical changes in religious practices. The ProtestantReformation abolished or severely curtailed such cus-tomary practices as indulgences, the veneration of relicsand saints, pilgrimages, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.The elimination of saints put an end to the numerouscelebrations of religious holy days and changed a com-munity’s sense of time. Thus, in Protestant communities,religious ceremonies and imagery, such as processions andstatues, tended to be replaced with individual privateprayer, family worship, and collective prayer and worshipat the same time each week on Sunday.In addition to abolishing saints’ days and religiouscarnivals, some Protestant reformers even tried to elim-inate customary forms of entertainment. The Puritans (asEnglish Calvinists were called), for example, attempted toban drinking in taverns, dramatic performances, anddancing. Dutch Calvinists denounced the tradition ofgiving small presents to children on the feast of SaintNicholas, in early December. Many of these Protestantattacks on popular culture were unsuccessful, however.The importance of taverns in English social life made itimpossible to eradicate them, and celebrating at Christ-mastime persisted in the Dutch Netherlands.The Catholic ReformationFocus Question:What measures did the RomanCatholic Church take to reform itself and to combatProtestantism in the sixteenth century?By the mid-sixteenth century, Lutheranism had becomeestablished in parts of Germany and Scandinavia, andCalvinism in parts of Switzerland, France, the Nether-lands, and eastern Europe (see Map 13.2). In England,the split from Rome had resulted in the creation of anational church. The situation in Europe did not lookfavorableforRoman Catholicism.But constructive,positive forces for reform were at work within theCatholic Church, and by the mid-sixteenth century, theycame to be directed by a revived and reformed papacy,giving the church new strength. The revival of RomanCatholicism is often called the Catholic Reformation,although some historians prefer the term Counter-Reformation,especiallyforthoseelementsoftheCatholic Reformation that were directly aimed at stop-ping the spread of Protestantism.