Most famous was the school in strasbourg founded by

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Most famous was the school in Strasbourg founded by Johannes Sturm in 1538, which served as a model for other Protestant schools. John Calvin’s Genevan Acad- emy, founded in 1559, was organized in two distinct parts. The ‘‘private school’’ or gymnasium was divided into seven classes for young people who were taught Latin and Greek grammar and literature as well as logic. In the ‘‘public school,’’ students were taught philosophy, Hebrew, Greek, and theology. The Genevan Academy, which eventually became a university, came to concen- trate on preparing ministers to spread the Calvinist view of the Gospel. Religious Practices and Popular Culture The Protestant reformers’ attacks on the Catholic Church led to radical changes in religious practices. The Protestant Reformation abolished or severely curtailed such cus- tomary practices as indulgences, the veneration of relics and saints, pilgrimages, monasticism, and clerical celibacy. The elimination of saints put an end to the numerous celebrations of religious holy days and changed a com- munity’s sense of time. Thus, in Protestant communities, religious ceremonies and imagery, such as processions and statues, tended to be replaced with individual private prayer, family worship, and collective prayer and worship at the same time each week on Sunday. In addition to abolishing saints’ days and religious carnivals, some Protestant reformers even tried to elim- inate customary forms of entertainment. The Puritans (as English Calvinists were called), for example, attempted to ban drinking in taverns, dramatic performances, and dancing. Dutch Calvinists denounced the tradition of giving small presents to children on the feast of Saint Nicholas, in early December. Many of these Protestant attacks on popular culture were unsuccessful, however. The importance of taverns in English social life made it impossible to eradicate them, and celebrating at Christ- mastime persisted in the Dutch Netherlands. The Catholic Reformation Focus Question: What measures did the Roman Catholic Church take to reform itself and to combat Protestantism in the sixteenth century? By the mid-sixteenth century, Lutheranism had become established in parts of Germany and Scandinavia, and Calvinism in parts of Switzerland, France, the Nether- lands, and eastern Europe (see Map 13.2). In England, the split from Rome had resulted in the creation of a national church. The situation in Europe did not look favorable for Roman Catholicism. But constructive, positive forces for reform were at work within the Catholic Church, and by the mid-sixteenth century, they came to be directed by a revived and reformed papacy, giving the church new strength. The revival of Roman Catholicism is often called the Catholic Reformation, although some historians prefer the term Counter- Reformation, especially for those elements of the Catholic Reformation that were directly aimed at stop- ping the spread of Protestantism.

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