The more control that the leader exercises the more

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The more control that the leader exercises, the more favorable the situation is for him or her. The control classifications are determined by rating the situation on its three dimensions: (1) leader-member relations measure how well the group and the leader get along; (2) task structure measures how clearly the procedures, goals, and evaluation of the job are defined; and (3) position power measures the leader's authority to hire, fire, discipline, and grant salary increases to group members. The leader therefore has the most control in a situation in which his or her relationships with members are the best. Overall finding The theory states that task-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of both high control and low control. Relationship-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of moderate control. Task-motivated leaders perform better in situations that are highly favorable for exercising control because they do not have to be concerned with the task. Instead, they can work on relationships. In very-low-control situations, the task-motivated leader is able to structure and make sense out of confusion, whereas the relationship- motivated leader wants to give emotional support to group members or call a meeting.
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Making the Situation More Favorable for the Leader A practical implication of contingency theory is that leaders should modify situations to match their leadership style, thereby enhancing their chances of being effective. To increase control over the situation, they can do one or more of the following: a. Improve leader-member relations through displaying an interest in the personal welfare of group members, having meals with them, actively listening to their concerns, telling anecdotes, and in general being a "nice” person. b. Increase task structure by engaging in behaviors related to initiating structure, such as being more specific about expectations, providing deadlines, showing samples of acceptable work, and providing written instructions. c. Exercise more position power by requesting more formal authority from higher management. For example, the leader might let it be known that he or she has the authority to grant bonuses and make strong recommendations for promotion. THE PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness , as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation. In general, a leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that he or she receives personal payoffs. At the same time, this group member's job satisfaction and performance increase. The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task. The type of subordinates is determined by how much control they think they have over the environment (locus of control) and by how well they think they can do the assigned task
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Environmental contingency factors are those that are not within the control of group members but influence satisfaction and task accomplishment. Three broad classifications of contingency factors in the environment are (1) the group members' tasks, (2) the authority system within the organization, and (3) the work group.
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