Ensure 24 residents can work and live in the town and

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24 residents can work and live in the town, and minimize commuting. A New Town that attains high degree of self-containment should have a sound economic base that provides a sufficient number of jobs for residents (Golany, 1976). Self-containment is essential for the creation of a balanced community. 2.3.4.2 A Balanced Community To improve the living standards of a society, each community should have a unique set of values and create a sense of belonging. A healthy New Town should include groups from different social classes so as to establish a diverse community with the support of housing mix. Generally, the main challenge of creating a balanced community is to accommodate low-income population, as this may drive away the middle- and high-income class who usually migrate to New Towns. Heterogeneity in a community is desirable, as it can create harmonious relationships, enrich people’s lives, and allow social interaction (Golany, 1976). 2.3.4.3 Diversity of Land Use Patterns Diverse land use is required for the establishment of a self-contained community. New Towns should contain various kinds of land uses associated with the traditional functions of a city, such as commercial, residential, industrial and institutional. With
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25 diverse land use patterns, people can obtain what they want in New Towns without travelling to the city centre, and as a result, reduce the number of automobile trips. 2.3.4.4 Optimal Community Size and Density A New Town with optimum size and density can help achieve social, economic and environmental sustainability. First, there should be a minimum and maximum size of a New Town. A good New Town should be large enough to offer a variety of facilities and jobs, while it should be small enough to enhance effective social interaction, strengthen social identity, and allow close proximity to the countryside (Golany, 1976). Second, a walkable community can be achieved by having compact development. Third, a population threshold is required to support a public transport system, as well as other basic infrastructure and facilities, in order to ensure they work efficiently and economically. As Frederic Osborn suggested (Golany, 1976, p. 141): “an optimum or norm for a New Town of a population of about 50,000 and a density of about 15 persons a town acre. This cannot be a universal formula, but it is useful as a sort of datum from which the gains and losses of variations upward and downward can be measured.”
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26 2.4 NEW URBANISM & SUSTAINABLE SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT To trace the origin of the New Urbanism, it is crucial to study the Garden City concept, since it is one of the most influential concepts leading to suburban development. As discussed, Howard had a vision to build a Garden City early in 1898 to decentralize people living in the congested industrial city and improve their quality of life. The early twentieth-century Garden City Movement in Britain awakened some planners that “town planning” had to emphasize the relationship between buildings and open space. The New Town concept spread widely which later
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  • Fall '15
  • PROFESSOROKWIRI
  • new towns, New Town, Garden City

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