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“You always leave me!”oAmbivalent/resistant – mothers that aren’t comforting or warm. The baby wants and prefers mom but when the mother leaves, they are so upset that even though she comes back later, they remain upset at her. Remain angry andhave a resistant attachment (i.e. love/hate relationship). They cannot use her as a safe base and as a result, remain angry or upset.Depressed mothers have babies that are ambivalent/resistant.“Why you do this? I need you and you leave me and I’m angry”oDisorganized/disoriented– the baby is most stressed and when the mother returns, they are confused if they should go near her or not.Abusive parents have babies that are disorganized/disoriented.“What’s going on here?”Adult AttachmentsSecure Adults: describe childhood objectively, value the impact of their caregiver
Dismissive Adults: deny value of childhood experiences, unable to recall details yet idolize caregiversPreoccupied Adults: describe childhood experiences emotionally, have anger/confusion towards caregiver.Belsky/Jaffee:oParents who had positive parenting were more warm and sensitive to their kidsoData suggests that warm parenting is transmitted between generations.Early Childcare Study:oSecure attachment children show no difference, regardless of quality of childcareoChildren with less secure mothers and extensive out of home care showed lesssecure attachmentoLess sensitive mother with a low quality care results in insecure attachment.Predictors of AttachmentEmotional Availability: being their for your children Sensitivity/responsiveness: the way that the mother interacts with the baby.Temperament: an infant’s behavioral style consistent across situations and is biologically based.oGoodness of Fit: If a difficult baby has an unresponsive mother, it will make things worst for the babies! If the mother is rigid and traditional, the baby is more likely to have insecure attachment. If the mother is responsible and sensitive, then the difficult babies are more likely to form secure attachments.Stability of Attachment StyleIf family environment is consistent, then attachment is consistent.If major change in circumstances, then attachment can change as well.oWaters et al. (1995) longitudinal study:Of the 60 infants that did the strange situation task, 50 of them came back as adults and spoke about their current attachment styles. 72% had the same secure attachment as they did as a baby. However, those whose response differed could have experienced a traumatic life event (i.e. death, sexual abuse, severe illness)Emotional ToneWarmth:oKids from high warmth families are more likely to have secure attachments with their parents, have higher IQ scores, be better at school, be less aggressive, and have an increased number of attentive individuals.oPettit et al., 1997:
Children from a lower socio-economic status are more likely to be worse off in school and other aspects of their lives. If you have a warm mother, it will counteract the negative effects from being a lowersocio-economic status.