If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery a cesarean delivery is usually

If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery a

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If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery, a cesarean delivery is usually performed Fortunately, infection of a baby from a woman with herpes infection is rare. Fetal effects: skin infection +/or CNS abnormalities Medications used for Genital Herpes are anti-virals such as Acyclovir Acyclovir is not recommended in pregnancy Human Immunodeficiency Virus: HIV (retrovirus, single stranded RNA virus) Most devastating STI in the world today Heterosexual transmission now the most common means of transmission in women Women are the fastest-growing population of HIV infection and AIDS Transmission of HIV occurs primarily through exchange of body fluids, also exposure to affected blood and blood products, perinatal transmission from mother to infant & through affected needle sharing with drug abuse Presence of any STI makes one more susceptible to acquiring HIV * HIV testing is now available over the counter, cheek swabs produce results in 20 minutes. Human Immunodeficiency Virus: HIV AIDS: A cquired I mmuno- D eficiency S yndrome (end-stage infection) is a failure of the immune function caused by HIV Early symptoms of HIV infection similar to mononucleosis including: fever, headache, night sweats, malaise, lymphadenopathy, myalgias, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, sore throat, and rash Usually occur within 3 weeks of initial exposure
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Pregnancy: Important to diagnose and treatment w/antiretroviral drugs Maternal treatment decreases risks for the infant Infant infection can occur during pregnancy (transplacental transfer), labor and delivery, or with breastfeeding Cesarean delivery Breastfeeding contraindicated in developed countries Hepatitis In the USA there are generally 3 types of Hepatitis: A, B and C Hepatitis A is spread primarily through fecal contamination and can be eliminated by simple hygiene Hepatitis C is still a curiosity and researchers are not sure how it is spread. But, they do know that hepatitis C is hard to get through sexual contact Hepatitis B is spread through body secretions: blood, saliva, vaginal secretions, semen & breast milk and readily crosses the placental barrier Hepatitis B Accounts for 40-45% of Hepatitis cases in the USA Can be transmitted to the infant perinatally before the mother develops clinical symptoms The disease is prevalent in Africans, Asians, Southeast Asian immigrants, Native Americans and Eskimos and intravenous drug abusers Symptoms include: vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, rash and painful joints Most infected adolescent & adults recover within 6 months and acquire long- lasting immunity Chronic hepatitis B develops in 10% of infected adults who can transmit the disease to others Chronic hepatitis B patients are at higher risk for chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer Hepatitis B: Fetal and Neonatal Effects The incidence of prematurity, LBW & neonatal death increases with maternal Hepatitis B These babies are at increased risk for developing acute infection at birth Babies and Children under 5 who develop Hepatitis B are more likely to become chronic carriers of the virus & becoming reservoirs for continued infection in the population
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  • Fall '15
  • Williams
  • Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Chlamydia infection, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections

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