In fact the failed attempts of reconciliation in the

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In fact, the failed attempts of reconciliation in the forms of Indian National Pact (1923) and the CR Das Pact (1923) had already forecasted the emergence of virulent communal organization. Sumit Sarkar remarks that a development of the ultimate significance during this period was the foundation of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh at Nagpur in 1925 under K B Hedgewar. Thus, despite their theoretical secularism, No-changers and Swarajists alike failed to adequately counter Hindu communalism or even often to clearly disassociate themselves from its organization and ideology. Responsively, many old Khilafatists surprisingly including the Ali brothers turned communal. However, Ayesha Jalal argues that only after the Nehru Report in 1928 that Mohammad Ali’s communal colours began to be spotted. Shaukat Ali ruefully observed in 1929 that “Congress had become an adjunct of Hindu Mahasabha”. According to Sumit Sarkar, link between elite and popular communalism is important understand the politics of the period. As Jaffrelot points out, Muslim mobilization under the banner of Khilafat generated a sense of inferiority and insecurity among the Hindus, who in emulation of their aggressive ‘Other’ started counter-mobilization. The Arya Samaj started a militant Suddhi campaign in UP and Punjab, while Hindu Mahasabha launched Hindu Sangathan programme. Sumit Sarkar notes that indeed, Tabligh and tanzim , including the murder of Swami Shraddhanand were initiated in response to Suddhi and Sangathan movements. Gyan Pandey observes that the inevitable result of such mobilization along community lines was the outbreak of a series of riots between the Hindus
and Muslims in the 1920s, affecting practically all parts of India. Similarly, Bipan Chandra remarks that the communal riots of major North Indian cities in 1923-24 were most vicious expressions of communalism. According to the Simon Commission Report, nearly 112 major communal riots occurred between 1922 and 1927. In 1928, the ineffectiveness of the Congress came to fore with the proposition of Nehru Report. Since Jinnah’s demand for weak political centre was unacceptable to the Congress, the Report could not be approved unanimously at the Calcutta Convention. Instead, Jinnah’s Fourteen Points were to form the basis of communal propaganda in the subsequent years. While encapsulating the undesirable impact of the Nehru Report, Shekhar Bandyopadhyay writes that “‘Muslim alienation’ from Congress politics was then boldly inscribed in their large-scale abstention from the Civil Disobedience and the Quit India Movements.” While bringing out the dilemma of the late-1920s and early 1930s, Bipan Chandra states that so long as the socio-political conditions favouring communal politics persisted, it was difficult to appease or conciliate communal leaders either temporally or permanently. He further states that an intense political-ideological struggle had to be waged against communalism and communal political forces.

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