used to take advantage of less savvy inmates; (3) criminal versatility that allows habitual offenders to engage in assorted acts of misconduct with fluidity; and (4) an inflated sense of self that can contribute to attempts to intimidate, coerce, and prey upon other inmates. Although Allender and Marcell’s profile has not been empirically tested; prior research suggests that because of their high-rate criminality, chronic offenders are a significant risk to prison order. For example, 60 years ago, Schrag (1954) found that individuals, who emerged as inmate leaders had served multiple prior terms in prison, were often incarcerated for the most serious forms of crime, had been diagnosed as psychopathic, and had been adjudicated as habitual criminals. Most importantly, career criminals/inmate leaders committed significantly more major rule violations, including escape and assaulting other inmates and staff.Gang Violence 6
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