midterm review - final copy

Reason to emphasize differences over similarities 4

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reason to emphasize differences over similarities (4) empirical o ideals of human action focused on the fulfillment of social roles and expectations o marriage was a duty for all Roman citizens, in the eyes of the family and the state, but was not generally supposed to fulfill erotic need o in the case of males only, extra-marital sexuality was normal and accepted o they thought sexuality was good or neutral so last as it was responsible (didn’t interfere with duties to the state or family) a second, more ascetic approach began in the centuries before the beginning of the Christian Era to urge that sexuality was an inherently dangerous force and should be avoided as much as possible o gender, age, class, social standing, and in some cases citizenship, set limitations on the range of acceptable forms of sexual expression for each individual - long-lasting homosexual unions and even official marriages were known in Greece and Rome - disagreed with Halperin; you cannot accept a language on face value alone
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Week 3 The Old Testament, Genesis I-IV - Adam made a woman out of one of his ribs - “she shall be called Woman because she was taken out of Man” - “they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed” - “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth” (original sin) The Kingdom of God is at Hand by Elaine Pagels - certain Christian moralists of this period insisted that sexual intercourse should not be pursued for pleasure, even among those monogamously married, but should be reserved solely for procreation - Augustine declared that spontaneous sexual desire is the proof of- and penalty for- universal original sin - accompanying the spread of Christianity was a revolution in sexual attitudes and practices - from about 200 BCE, the story of creation became, for certain Jews and later for Christians, a primary means of revealing and defending basic attitudes and values - some Christians invoke Genesis against the theory of evolution - Paul invoked the creation account to urge Christians to avoid prostitution and later to argue that women must veil their heads in church, apparently to acknowledge their subordination to men as a kind of divine order given in nature - the story has been used to prove that women, being naturally gullible, are unfit for any role but raising children and keeping house (reinforce patriarchy) - different interpretation: Adam’s sin was not sexual indulgence but disobedience and the real theme of the story is moral freedom and moral responsibility - Christian philosopher Justin invoked Genesis to argue that humankind owes allegiance only to the God who created all humanity- the God of Israel- and not to the gods of Rome - Foucault calls this “the politics of truth”- what each of us perceives and acts upon as true has much to do with our situation; social, political, cultural, religious, or philosophical - in Jesus’ time, urban Jewish communities were uneasily divided between those who
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