Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

We need to add one o atom and two h atoms on the

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ten H atoms on the left, and five O atoms and eight H atoms on the right. We need to add one O atom and two H atoms on the right to balance the equation. This is done by adding another H 2 O molecule on the right hand side. We now need to check the equation again: ( NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + 2 NaOH 2 NH 3 + 2 H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 The equation is now balanced. Exercise: Balancing more advanced chemical equations Write balanced equations for each of the following reactions: 1. Al 2 O 3 ( s ) + H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) Al 2 ( SO 4 ) 3 ( aq ) + 3 H 2 O ( l ) 2. Mg ( OH ) 2 ( aq ) + HNO 3 ( aq ) Mg ( NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2 H 2 O ( l ) 3. Lead(ll)nitrate solution reacts with potassium iodide solution. 4. When heated, aluminium reacts with solid copper oxide to produce copper metal and aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). 5. When calcium chloride solution is mixed with silver nitrate solution, a white precipitate (solid) of silver chloride appears. Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ) is also produced in the solution. 231
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12.5 CHAPTER 12. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 10 12.5 Summary A chemical equation uses symbols to describe a chemical reaction. In a chemical equation, reactants are written on the left hand side of the equation, and the products on the right. The arrow is used to show the direction of the reaction. When representing chemical change, it is important to be able to write the chemical formula of a compound. In any chemical reaction, the law of conservation of mass applies. This means that the total atomic mass of the reactants must be the same as the total atomic mass of the products. This also means that the number of atoms of each element in the reactants must be the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product. If the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product, then the equation is balanced . If the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is not the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product, then the equation is not balanced . In order to balance an equation, coefficients can be placed in front of the reactants and products until the number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of the equation. Exercise: Summary exercise Balance each of the following chemical equations: 1. NH 4 + H 2 O NH 4 OH 2. Sodium chloride and water react to form sodium hydroxide, chlorine and hy- drogen. 3. Propane is a fuel that is commonly used as a heat source for engines and homes. Balance the following equation for the combustion of propane: C 3 H 8 ( l ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) 4. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, has the formula C 14 H 18 N 2 O 5 . Write the balanced equation for its combustion (reaction with O 2 ) to form CO 2 gas, liquid H 2 O, and N 2 gas. 5. Fe 2 ( SO 4 ) 3 + K ( SCN ) K 3 Fe ( SCN ) 6 + K 2 SO 4 6. Chemical weapons were banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925. According to this protocol, all chemicals that release suffocating and poisonous gases are not to be used as weapons. White phosphorus, a very reactive allotrope of phosphorus, was recently used during a military attack. Phosphorus burns vigorously in oxygen. Many people got severe burns and some died as a result.
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