The study was approved by Grand Valley State Uni versitys Human Research Review

The study was approved by grand valley state uni

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25 km. The study was approved by Grand Valley State Uni- versity’s Human Research Review Committee (reference number 18-021-H-GVSU) and was performed in accordance with the standards of ethics outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided written informed consent to participate. 2.2 Experimental Protocol The study comprised of three visits for each participant. Visit 1 established that subjects were able to run below their lactate threshold at 14, 16, and 18 km·h −1 for men, and 14, 15, and 16 km·h −1 for women, by measuring blood lactate concentrations ([La]) [ 16 ]. During visits 2 and 3, VO 2 , biomechanical stride characteristics, and blood lactate concentration at 14, 16, and 18 km·h −1 for men, and 14, 15, and 16 km·h −1 for women, were measured while wearing each of the four shoe conditions—NVF, ADI, NZM, and NVF + . Subjects were asked to replicate their diet, sleep, and training pattern before all laboratory visits. 2.2.1 Shoe Conditions We compared the commercially available NVF 4% racing shoe (205 g for size US 10) with traditional marathon racing shoes, the Adidas Adios BOOST 3 (ADI; 236 g for size US 10), and traditional track spikes, the NZM (118 g for size US 10) (Fig.  1 ). We also added 30–35 g of lead weights to the NVF 4% (NVF +) to equalize to the greater mass of the ADI shoes to examine the confounding effects of shoe mass on the energetic cost of running [ 8 , 17 ] in our fourth shoe condition. However, at the smaller shoe sizes in our study (sizes US 6.5–7), we found the discrepancy in mass between the NVF and ADI shoe was greater (~ 35 g) compared with larger sizes (~ 10 g at size US 12). Therefore, we also had to add 20–25 g of lead weights to the ADI size US 11–12 shoes, such that the relative difference in mass between NVF shoes was 15% of ADI shoes across all shoe sizes. Lead weights ranging between ~ 1 and 4 g were dispersed across the laces of each shoe to not affect the mechanics or com- fort of the shoe while running. No weights were added to any sizes of NZM spikes. Subjects were ff tted to each shoe Table 1 Subject characteristics and personal bests at 5000 and 10,000 meters (mean ± standard deviation) PB personal best, VO 2 peak maximal aerobic power Age (years) Height (cm) Body mass (kg) Body fat (%) VO 2 peak (ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 5-km PB (min) 10-km PB (min) Male ( n = 12) 24.3 ± 4.5 177.8 ± 7.0 66.5 ± 8.5 5.7 ± 2.1 74.5 ± 4.8 14.35 ± 0.38 ( n = 10) 29.50 ± 0.20 ( n = 6) Female ( n = 12) 23.0 ± 3.1 165.8 ± 2.9 53.6 ± 4.4 15.6 ± 2.7 62.1 ± 3.5 16.64 ± 0.51 ( n = 12) 34.93 ± 0.41 ( n = 7)
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334 K. R. Barnes, A. E. Kilding condition between sizes US 6.5 and 12 based on comfort. Total running use for any pair of shoes did not exceed 40 km. 2.2.2 Visit 1 Initially, subjects had their height, weight and body composi- tion assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis scale (Tanita TBF-310; Tanita Corporation, Arlington Heights, IL, USA). Subsequently, subjects wore their own shoes during a 15-min warm-up at the subjects’ own self-selected run- ning speed ≤ 14 km·h −1 prior to running 3 × 5-min bouts at 14, 16, and 18 km·h −1 for men, and 14, 15, and 16 km·h −1 for women, on a level Woodway ELG treadmill (Woodway USA, Waukesha, WI, USA). Subjects took a 5-min break
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