Carbon dioxide co 2 bi product of o 2 consumption

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Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Bi-product of O2consumptionNorm: 22-30 mEq/LCritical Values: <15 or >45 - observe rate and quality of respirationsAfter the ABG lecture, think about this serum valueBicarbonate is produced to offset the changes in CO2
Anion GapElectrolytes/proteins are positively or negatively charged+-When there is an imbalance of electrolytes and acid base balance, then the anion gap will be abnormalRange – 10-17 mEq/LHelps define metabolic acidosis
UrinalysisNot to set for more than 2 hours at room temperaturepH: 4.5 – 8.0Specific gravity: 1.001 – 1.030Protein, Glucose, Ketone, Urobilinogen, Bacteria - all negativeCrystals: fewRBCs: rare Casts: rareWBCs: 3-4
UAIf see bacteria = UTIIf see many RBC = kidney stones, trauma to kidneyIf you see protein = kidney dysfunctionYou have just placed a catheter in a patient with severe abdomen pain. The UA results show RBC of 10, how do you interpret this?What is a post void residual specimen?
Urinary pHChanges depending on dietary intakeMeat & eggs more acidicFruits & vegetables more alkalineAcid/Base balanceDiarrhea, starvation, drugs
Specific GravityMeasures the density of the urine compared to the density of waterHigher the number, more concentratedIncreases can also be caused by lack of fluid, and increased secretion of ADH If glucose, protein or dyes are introduced - can cause false highsDecrease - dilute urine
ToxicologyUrine and blood are obtained to test for many drugsCannabinoid (Marijuana)MethBenzoOpiodsAlcohol
CholesterolLevels differ greatly depending on variables such as age, diet, geographic location and genetic influences Normal Range: 120-200mg/dl (or less than 200)No fasting unless drawn in a lipid profile – even that is changingTotal cholesterol not as important and the ratio of LDL and HDLFactors affecting range: cortisone, ASA, diet, malnutrition, hemolysis, hyperthyroidism, severe liver damage, and many drugs
LipoproteinsHDL “Good Cholesterol” – 29-77 mg/dl; higher is betterFast for 10-12 hours, except H2OLDL “Bad Cholesterol” – 60-160 mg/dl; lower is betterVLDL – made of 70% triglyceridesThe ratio needs to be less than 5 – interpreted as patient’s cholesterol is not at risk to deposit plaque on artery walls
RatioTo calculate cholesterol ratio, divide HDL into total cholesterol numberIt is now believe that determining non-HDL cholesterol level may be more useful than calculating cholesterol ratioNon-HDL cholesterol, as its name implies, simply subtracts HDL cholesterol number from your total cholesterol number. So it contains all the "bad" types of cholesterol. Values less than 130mg is the target
TriglyceridesPeak levels about 5 hours after a fatty mealNormal Range-10-190 mg/dlRange allowed to increase with ageIncreases: nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, toxemia of pregnancy, and hypothyroidismDecreases: some genetic defects and severe malnutritionVery high levels in pancreatitis

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