The most important immune cells are the lymphocytes and macrophages If our

The most important immune cells are the lymphocytes

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chemically distinguished from each other making this defence highly specific. The most important immune cells are the lymphocytes and macrophages . If our immune system functions properly and effectively, it protects us against most bacteria, viruses, transplanted organs and even our own cells that “turn against us!” The immune system does it directly through cells being used in the attacks or indirectly through certain chemical substances and antibodies being released. This results in a highly specific resistance against particular diseases. The non-specific defence mechanism is always ready to defend the body in contrast to this, the specific mechanism first has to “meet” or be exposed to the foreign substance, also known as the antigen. What this second line of defence lacks in terms of speed, is more than made up for by the degree of accuracy with which this response responds to a specific intruder. One could actually call these specific defence mechanisms the “snipers” of the body!
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Study unit 7 104 Immune response comprises two interdependent systems namely the humoral and the cell- mediatory response. Figure 7.1 indicates the cells involved in each type of response: Study attentively Use the scheme provided in figure 7.1 to make a summary of the information from Mader and Windelspecht. 7.1 NON-SPECIFIC RESPONSE Study this section using the questions to guide you. 7.1.1 Barriers to entry 1. Use the scheme below to summarise barriers to entry. (12) BARRIERS TO ENTRY Non chemical Antimicrobial List three examples and explain how they function Give three examples and what they do 7.1.2 Inflammatory response 1. What substance, released by damaged tissue and mast cells, causes the inflammatory response? (1) 2. List the chain of events known as the inflammatory response. (8) 3. Explain the role of fever in the immune response. (5) 4. What is the difference between chronic and acute inflammation? What diseases are associated with chronic inflammation? (4) 5. How can we reduce our chances of getting chronic inflammation? (3) 7.1.3 Phagocytes and natural killer cells 1. Name two types of cells that migrate to inflamed tissue during the inflammatory response and explain how they can leave the blood vessels. (2) 2. How can dendritic cells (a type of APS) and macrophages recognize pathogens and what do they do when they recognize them? (2) 3. What do neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages do to destroy pathogens? (3) 4. What does “pus’ consist of? (4) 5. Explain what Natural Killer cells are, where they are most abundant, who they target and how they know what to destroy. (7)
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Study unit 7 105 7.1.4 Protective proteins 1. Complement proteins are said to complement certain immune responses. Describe three ways in which they complement the immune responses. (6) 2. What is the role of interferons in the non-specific defence against disease? (3 7.2 SPECIFIC RESPONSE Study this section using the questions to guide you: 7.2.1 Differentiate between: (i) An antigen and an antibody (2) (ii) A self-antigen and a foreign-antigen (2) (iii) The time that it takes the non-specific and the specific responses to respond. (2) (iv)
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  • Spring '16
  • Ambani Mudau
  • Phylum, Windelspecht

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