Informed consent when it is documented that a patient

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Informed Consent - When it is documented that a patient has been counseled by trained counselors about the benefits as well as risks of undergoing a procedure and the patient agrees, in writing or verbally, to undergo that procedure. Integrase - Enzyme made by HIV which cuts host cell chromosomes and integrates HIV into the chromosomes. IVDU -Intravenous drug use. Latency Period - The time period over which an infection exists without any symptoms appearing or the time period from the point of infection to showing clinical signs of the disease. Based on current data, the latency period for the HIV is estimated to range from ten to twelve years. During the latency period of HIV infection, the person can transmit HIV. Lipodystrophy Sydrome -This syndrome has been recently described in patients with HIV treated with antiretroviral medications. The etiology of the syndrome is not known. It consists of some or all of the following: loss of subcutaneous fat especially on the face, limbs and buttocks, development of fat in the abdomen around the viscera, development of a buffalo hump between the shoulders, elevation of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Some patients on protease inhibitors also develop diabetes. 4
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Lymphocyte - White cells in blood which are important for fighting infection. Include B Cells, T Cells (CD4, CD8), and Natural Killer Cells. Macrophages - White cells derived from monocytes in blood. They can be infected by HIV, travel outside the blood system and can serve as reservoirs of infection e.g. not killed by virus. MSM -Men who have sex with men. Mutation - A change in the genetic component of a human cell or virus (i.e., DNA or RNA) that can cause the cell or virus not to produce proteins or can change the proteins that are made. HIV can mutate in the presence of antiretroviral medications and become resistant to those medications so that they no longer are effective in suppressing the virus replication. Natural Killer Cells (NK) - Lymphocytes that kill virus infected cells. Needle Stick Injury -Health care workers in the course of their work sometimes sustain a needle stick injury in which a needle or scalpel which is contaminated with the blood of a patient cuts the health care worker. The risk of transmission of HIV in these circumstances if the patient is HIV positive would be less than 1 in 300. The main risk factors for transmission is if the needle is hollow bore (ie not a surgical suture needle), if needle is stuck into the muscle of the health care worker, if the needle was in a vein or artery of the patient and if the patient had a high viral load or AIDS. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) -This is a class of drugs that attach to the reverse transcriptase, altering its shape (conformation) preventing it from copying the genetic material of HIV. Three main drugs are approved: nevirapine (Viramuune), delavirdine (Rescriptor), efavirenz (Sustiva). These drugs are generally well absorbed, widely distributed in the body and cheap to make. They can cause rash and hepatitis. Resistance can develop to them with a single mutation.
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  • Spring '09
  • Strauss

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