Depended on voluntary support by business and the

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Depended on voluntary support by business and the public Used parades, billboards, magazine ads, and celebrity events to persuade people to buy only from companies that subscribed to an NRA code and displayed the NRA symbol, a blue eagle, and its slogan: “we do our part” Under pressure from Francis Perkins- the NRA textile code banned child labor It also affirmed workers right to organize unions Reconstruction Finance Corporation: leant large sums to banks, insurance companies, and even new business ventures making it a potent financial resource for corporate America. Problems and Controversies Plague the Early New Deal The NRA and the AAA faced problems Code violations increased Small businesses complained that the codes favored big corporations. Corporate trade associations used the codes to stifle competition and fix prices 1935- NRA ruled unconstitutional unanimously. Two reasons: o The law gave the president regulatory powers that constitutionally belonged to congress o Regulated commerce within in the state, violating the constitutional provision limiting federal regulation to interstate commerce The AAA’s crop reduction payments actually hurt southern tenants and sharecroppers The interracial southern tenant farmers’ union, led by the socialist party, emerged. Black Sunday- racing winds created dunes fifty feet high during the dust bowl of the 1930s 3.5 million people left the great plains in the 1930s- nicknamed the Okies- complicated new deal agricultural planning Harry Hopkins persuaded FDR to support direct federal relief programs, rather than channeling funds through state and local agencies. Hopkins was named to head a temporary agency- the Civil Works Administration. Hopkins wanted to put people to work and get money circulating in contrast to Ickes who examined every proposal with a fine tooth comb. Hopkins’ approach proved more influential. 1934-1935: Challenges from Right and Left 1934- nearly 2000 strikes Conservatives attacked the new deal as socialistic Anti-new Deal American Liberty league formed by several business leaders and al smith. Despite this, the new deal remained popular Roosevelt engaged in fireside chats- they underscored his formal nature. Roosevelt’s mastery of radio would provide a model for politicians of the television era. Midterm elections further enforced the new deal because democrats increased their congressional majorities. Some people criticized the new deal for going too far while others said it did not go far enough. Francis Townsend proposed that the government pay two hundred dollars a month to all retired citizens, requiring them to spend it within thirty days. He said this would help the elderly, stimulate the economy, and create jobs by encouraging retirement.

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